1889 TO 1929

Brief descriptions of the prominent American piano manufacturers whose instruments are described in alphabetical order manufactured between December 1889 until January 1930. This is a Directory of the piano industry and is designed to supplement the analytical matter pertaining to the instruments. To some degree the information is for historical purposes and is for pianos manufactured by each of the listed companies at the time of manufacture.

All statements regarding the material's and/or the techniques of manufacture are representative of that time when few blueprints existed and pianos were made one at time and in many cases with hand tools.  While the merits of musical instruments manufactured nearly a century ago are now not necessarily affected by the commercial standing or historical record of their makers. Consequently, prospective piano buyers usually desire to know something concerning these points. Agents and salesmen often make these items strong points in their arguments for or against the manufacture of these instruments. As frequently repeated in these pages the only way by which to arrive at an approximate valuation of an unknown piano-one bearing a name that is not the trademark of a recognized industry is to ascertain the instrument's origin and condition. This also suggests the need of some knowledge of the makers of the various instruments. This list is not designed to catalogue all the American manufacturers, but it embraces most of the pianos that have played a considerable part in history for estimates of the qualities of the instruments themselves.

The names of pianos are arranged alphabetically in this book to ascertain the character and reliability of any instrument. In this day of advertising and enterprise the names of most great pianos are familiar to the public. But there are a few of the older instruments whose originators succeeded in making their genius known. But on leaving the scene, their successors, permitted the priceless fame of those pianos to decline. Such pianos are of course given their deserved place in this book and, even if the name may seem strange, the commendation herein accorded may be accepted as reliable.

Many of the firms mentioned here managed to survive the 1920's but succumbed during the depression years. Others were swallowed up in the two big combines, the Aeolian Company and the American Piano Company, that came into being shortly after World War I.


Pianos and player pianos bearing this name were made in Marion Ohio from 1907 to 1927, after that date they were made by Jesse French and Kasselman at Newcastle, Indiana. These pianos were reliable but would require the instrument be in exceptional condition or have great sentimental value in order to warrant rebuilding.


 Pianos of admirable character were built by Chickering Brothers of Chicago Illinois. Company was not affiliated with the CHICKERING & SONS' piano company.


This famous old industry was founded in 1908 by Peter Adler and was, after a long and honorable career, owned and controlled by his sons, who give personal attention to every department of the model factory and offices in Louisville Ky. The instruments produced were distinguished for their fine and durable qualities. The Studio Grand, an instrument of marked power and beauty was only five feet in length, and it has attained to great favor among discriminating classes of music lovers.


H. B. Tremaine was a business genius who brought about the commercial exploitation of the piano player on a big scale. Tremaine's father had built a successful small business making and cranked table-top-sized mechanical organs, a very popular item in homes in the late 1800's. He founded the "Aeolian Organ and Music Company" around 1888; the firm achieved considerable success with larger instruments and organs. His son took over in 1899 and immediately set about to apply his own business acumen to the company's affairs. With the newly perfected "Pianola,' he launched an aggressive advertising campaign which was entirely new to the stodgy piano business. With four page color advertisements (almost unheard of in that day) published in the popular magazines, he literally stunned the piano industry with the message that here, indeed, was the answer to everyone's prayer for music in the home! Tremaine and Pianola built an enormous business empire over the next thirty years. It wasn't long after the turn of the century that it was deemed desirable to "miniaturize" the clumsy Pianola and other similar, instruments so that they could be built directly inside the pianos. Within a few short years, the push up"players disappeared from the scene. By this time everyone got into the act, and every piano maker so manufactured a player of some sort.

This name is known the world over in connection with musical instruments, It is applied to some of the various products of the Aeolian Company of New York which instruments of renown included the Duo Art Pianola, Weber Pianola, Steck Pianola, Wheelock Pianola, Stuyvesant Pianola, Steinway Duo Art Pianola, Stroud Pianola the Aeolian Orchestrelle and the Aeolian Pipe Organ; it also controlled the Meludee Music Co., Inc., and the Universal Music Co.


Established by Mr. C.A. Ahlstrom, who was a noted piano expert of the era and whose ideas aided in the development of the Piano Industry. The Ahlstrom "ARTONE" piano was marked by several improvements, such as the non-blocking Action and a device for dividing tone volume, which enabled the production of a sustained pianissimo tone in the bass for the accompaniment, with the normal tone in the treble for melody. This device is used today by virtually every piano maker in the world as the left pedal on every vertical piano manufactured. The "ARTONE" name was used to designate the special characteristics of Ahlstrom Pianos because of their highly perfected construction and artistic tone. An Ahlstrom "ARTONE" Upright piano may be worthy of rebuilding. One of the few upright-vertical pianos in the world worth the time and investment to do so. This also applies to the Player-Pianos known as the "ARTONOLO," and the Ahlstrom grands known as the "ART-GRAND" and "ART- REPRODUCING" Grand Expression - Reproducing Player Pianos - Not just a player piano but a player piano that plays with the exact amount of loud and soft expression by the artist. All "ART-REPRODUCING" Pianos are collectors items that command very high prices.


Pianos bearing this name have an enviable reputation for superior workmanship, materials, tone qualities, beautiful case designs and customer satisfaction. This was one of the established piano houses that always strived to see how perfectly they could construct each piano. Each instrument was carefully inspected by Mr. Daniel Albert musician extraordinary, and expert piano builder wherever and whenever he was available. Pianos worth rebuilding.


Albrecht pianos were one of the first pianos made in America. Established in 1774 By Charles Albrecht of Philadelphia Pennsylvania. A little known historical fact is that an Albrecht Piano was located in Independence Hall on the day the declaration of Independence was signed. The first Albrecht Piano can be viewed at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.


House's name of pianos sold by Sherman Clay, San Francisco, California, the unchallenged leader in music the same company that provided music to the entire west coast of America. Pianos were always of excellent and durable quality.


Established in 1902, Grand pianos were distinguished for their beautiful tone, their handsome and distinctive designs, their exquisite craftsmanship and great durability. Grand pianos were made one-at-a-time with the finest raw materials available. Some instruments were made under the name of long time piano maker B.G. Henderson.

ALTOONA Well known A Pennsylvania brand name throughout the Middle Eastern States.


This company was created as a "combine" of the finest pianos the world has ever seen. Company was established in 1903, later to become Aeolian-American. Subsidiary Companies Chickering & Sons, Boston, Mass., established 1823 Wm. Knabe & Co., Baltimore, Md., established 1837 Mason & Hamlin Co., Boston established 1854 Armstrong Co., Rochester, N. Y. which includes the following subsidiary companies Haines Bros., established 1851 Marshall & Wendell Piano Co., established 1835 Franklin Piano Co. established 1894; Foster & Co. established 1881; Armstrong Piano Co. established in 1884; Brewster Piano Co., established 1883; The Amphion Co., established 1903; also, East Rochester Iron Works and The Ampico Corporation.

The American Piano Company organized in 1903. The affiliation of the various houses forming it insured for each a wider scope for musical activity, and valuable advantages in securing the best the world markets afford in materials which enter into piano construction. The wisdom of this important affiliation of various interests with similar ideals is apparent to any student of modern business methods disclosing such affiliation to be the uniting factor in the success of every great American institution of equal importance however, was the preservation of the individuality of the great houses forming this company. This individuality was preserved with scrupulous care. The Chickering was still made in Boston, where it has been made continuously for nearly a hundred years, in the great factory built through the foresight and vision of Jonas Chickering.

The Chickering organization and personnel directed its construction and preserved the high ideals of the founder. The Knabe made in Baltimore since 1837, was still constructed there with all the Knabe traditions in the hands of those who received their inspiration from the elder Knabe. In Rochester the Foster-Armstrong Company embraced in a series of factories in which the individuality of various pianos was preserved and directed by its separate organizations Haines Bros., Marshall & Wendell, Franklin, Foster, Armstrong and The American Piano Company also manufactured the Ampico, which was obtainable in several of the pianos made at its various divisions.


The American Player-Piano Co. was established in 1902. Many thousands of these instruments have been sold, and they give perfect satisfaction. The industry is controlled by Bjur Bros. Co. of New York, which has won a place of distinction in the musical world. A player of first-class quality and perfectly safe to purchase. Refer also to Bjur Bros. Co.


 The ordinary player-piano has only one basic function, that of striking the notes. The reproducing piano added the ability to recreate the touch, the shadings, the nuances, of the original recording - all the expression characteristics, and making the difference between purely mechanical sounds and true artistry. The paper roll was obliged, therefore, to include extra perforations which carried the "expression information" in coded form. These codes, which bear a resemblance to the language of modern computers, were either captured at the time of the initial recording or added later in an editing process. The reproducing piano was equipped with apparatus to "read" these expression holes and to reconstruct the exact expression of a piece while other holes played the notes. Today, when we hear the words "digitally enhanced," we think of a highly-sophisticated disc electronic sound system replete with elaborate and costly loudspeakers, a magnificent cabinetry tailored to fit properly into one's home and all backed up by extensive marketing and advertising by numerous manufacturers.

One wonders how anything could possibly sound finer. Yet to many, the true ultimate in "digital piano" occurred when the reproducing piano reigned supreme in its ability to re-create "live" the performances of great keyboard artists right in the home.

The American Piano Company introduced its device to the market and called it the Ampico. It was based on the designs of an eccentric mechanical genius, one Charles Fuller Stoddard. Stoddard, whose home was a maze of newfangled contraptions of his own design, spent the last few years of his life entertaining the world's greatest piano virtuosos who would record on his unique Ampico recording piano. Ampico reproducing systems were eventually installed in such fine pianos as the Mason & Hamlin, the Knabe, the Chickering, the Beale in Australia, and the Willis in Canada.

In the mid-twenties, the Ampico Corporation engaged a scientist, Dr. Clarence Hickman, to completely re-engineer the Ampico reproducing system and roll making process. His work resulted in the so-called "Model B" Ampico pianos which represented the highest possible standards of technology available at the time. Hickman developed the famous "spark chronograph" method of capturing expression characteristics of individual pianists and today, the "Model B" Ampico pianos are in great demand by collectors, and at prices that go right through the roof, $100,000 to $200,000 in mint condition. Hickman recognized that the best way to measure expression is in terms of the energy imparted directly to the piano strings by the piano's hammers. He devised a scheme by which the velocity, and hence the energy, of each hammer could be measured just prior to hitting the string. This information was then directed to a recording device and the coded expression holes were adapted directly to the master production roll. Hickman was also a renowned expert on explosives, and he is responsible for the development of the tank-busting recoilless rifle, the "bazooka," which helped the United States secure victory in World War II. The bazooka is named after still another musical instrument, but that's another story.

The Ampico received the highest endorsement of artists and musical critics throughout the world and demonstrated its ability to reenact perfectly the artists playing in comparison concerts in which it demonstrated side by side with the actual playing of the living pianist, Godowsky, Rubirstein, Dobitaityi, firovitch, Ornsteili, Levitzki, Moisciwitsch and many other great pianists have submitted their playing to this supreme test with triumphant results for the Ampico. In addition to playing the artists' record music rolls the Ampico may be operated with any standard 88-note music roll to which the operator imparts his own interpretation and the instrument may be played manually the same as any upright or grand. in using the artists' record music rolls the Ampico is operated with an electric motor which obviates the necessity of pumping or effort of any kind on the part of the operator. The Ampico may be had in the world-famous Chickering, Haines Bros., Marshall & Wendell, Franklin, Fischer and the celebrated Knabe pianos and for Canadian distribution also in the Willis pianos.


Timer created by Ampico to turn on precisely on the hour, plays a short selection and strike the hour throughout the day.


Imported by F.T. Anderson, New York,. Built by Ricca Piano Company


Good quality vertical and grand pianos handmade in New Jersey and New York. Production about 500 pianos a year. Excellent rebuilt project. The Angelus reproducing piano made and distributed by the Premier Grand Piano Corp. was a fine piano. It reproduced the playing of the world's great pianists exactly true to life. These remarkable results are due to the employment of the famous Angelus recording and expression devices.


Name applied to a small 4' 7" grand piano equipped with an electric candelabra. Built for small apartments, very popular in the Chicago and Mid West United States. Circa 1920 - 1933. By Lyon & Healy Chicago Ill.


Established as Clark 1901-. The trademark "Apollo" was one of the best known and most widely advertised names in the world. The Apollo reproducing system was created and manufactured by Welte, with values similar to the Ampico collection. Welte piano rolls contain many of the worlds greatest artists and composers of the time. by Wurlitzer DeKalb Ill.

The trade-mark "Apollo" is one of the best known and most widely advertised names in the piano trade, both in this and foreign countries, in many of which the trade mark has been registered and a large business established The name was first used by Melville Clark Piano Co of De Kaib, Illinois The name Apollo has been for some years past the name of a very high grade line of grand pianos and reproducing grand pianos manufactured by The Apollo Piano Company. The name is now known principally as a brand of a reproducing mechanism of the highest order of perfection. This mechanism possesses many exclusive features and iii this field is unexcelled. The Apollo has a large and constantly growing library of rolls containing the names of the world ' greatest composers and pianists, the nucleus of which is the famous Welte library to which most of the worlds leading musicians have contributed. The Apollo mechanism is found only in Wurlitzer and Apollo pianos.


549 W.42nd Street New York, Est. 1906, Company sold to Braumuller in 1921, Trade Mark Braumuller, also made Baumeister. Produced 60,000 pianos in 15 years. These pianos are worthy of restoration. Grand pianos were distinguished for their beautiful tone, their handsome and distinctive designs, their exquisite craftsmanship.

ARGYLE Trademark name on pianos of durable character by Elbel Bros., South Bend, Md.

ARIA DAVINA This name now familiar as applied to pianos is that of the M.Schulz Co. reproducing piano. The Aria Divinas were artistic instruments in every way from case designs to tone and accuracy with which the performances of great pianists are reproduced with perfect ease by the performer. The Aria Divina is an instrument of artistic character in which are features of notable achievement. In everything that was advanced in the latest development of the instruments by which the actual performances of the world's greatest pianists were instantly reproduced in any parlor the Aria Divina stood. Any Aria Divina piano is worth the time and investment to completely rebuild.


Philadelphia, Pa. Name used on pianos by various piano merchants. The original was an excellent commercial piano around the turn of the century.

ARLINGTON A very old piano name found upon instruments produced by the American Piano Company.


Was made by the Armstrong Piano Company factory located in Rochester, N. Y.. The quality of the Armstrong was best described by the company's slogan, "Sound in Body and Musical in Soul." The Armstrong was noted for refinement of case design, great durability and beautiful tone quality. The Armstrong player-pianos were among the most widely known of the reliable instruments on the market. Armstrong pianos had been used in the Rochester Public Schools with practical exclusiveness for many years. The name of this instrument was that of a prominent officer of the American Piano Co., a gentleman of long experience in the piano industry and personally one of the foremost influences in the line of work to which he is devoted.


This was the name applied by the Steger & Sons Piano Mfg. Company of Chicago and Steger, Illinois, to a line of pianos and player pianos of high character produced by the Artemis Division of that industry. The instruments were very reliable. They were noted for beautiful tone and admirable designs. The construction of Artemis pianos and player pianos was thoroughly dependable. The popularity of the Artemis line of pianos had made it a national institution. The success as popular, moderate priced instruments had been achieved on the basis of merit. Considerations such as overall condition should be made before investing in a complete rebuild unless there is sentimental value involved.

ARTIST NEWARK N.J. Name used by Bamberger's Department store on a reliable piano



 This name was employed by Ahlstrom Piano Co., of Jamestown, N.Y. to designate the special characteristics of the Ahlstrom pianos, because of their highly perfected construction and artistic tone. The makers considered them a classic among pianos and therefore featured as the Ahlstrom "ARTONE" pianos, the players being known as the "Artonolo" and the grands as "Arto-Grand" and "Art Reproducing," these names being derivatives of "ARTONE."


This is the distinguishing name adopted by the Schumann Piano Co. of Rockford, Ill., The Art O Tone was first introduced at the annual convention of the piano trades in Chicago.


This company was owned and controlled by the Bacon Piano Co., New York City, of which Mr. W. P. H. Bacon was president. This piano manufacturing concern was named in honor of John Jacob Astor, who founded the Bacon Piano Company in the year 1789. The Astor Piano Co. produced uprights and player-piano instruments that were notable for their beautiful resonant tone and handsome and distinctive case designs. The Astor Piano was renown for it's quality and workmanship. The Astor Piano is an excellent instrument to consider rebuilding.


One of the strongest and most enterprising of the American player- piano industries. The success of this factory had been such that the factory floor space embraced more than 300,000 square feet with an annual capacity of 10,000 player pianos. The Autopiano Company had for years exported its popular product to sections of the world, and the Autopiano was notable for its remarkable expression capabilities and staunch durability. It resisted the climatic extremes of the Arctic regions and the tropical zone equally well.

Being manufactured by player-piano specialists, in large factories devoted exclusively to the manufacture of player-pianos, and having an expert knowledge of the exact requirements of the foreign trade, were all leading reasons why the Autopiano Company proposition was unusually attractive and appealing. The Autopiano line embraced a comprehensive assortment of prices and styles, including upright players, reproducing pianos and grand player-pianos. This company manufactured the Autopiano, the Autopiano Electric Expression, the Autopiano Grand, the Autopiano Welte-Mignon (licensed), the Autopiano Welte-Mignon (licensee) Grand, and the Pianist Player-piano.

It was said that there were twice as many Autopiano's in use as any other player piano. The Autopiano was a thoroughly high grade piano, containing a player mechanism of marvelous attainments in which a great number of patented devices that make possible interpretation of the highest order on the Autopiano. The Autopiano received the highest awards at the following expositions: Grand Highest Award, Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exhibition, 1909; Grand Prix, Rotterdam, Holland, International Musical Exhibition, 1909; Gold Medal, Manchester, England, Industrial Exhibition, 1910; Gold Medal. Manchester Coronation Exhibition, 1911; Highest Award, Appalachian Exposition, Knoxville, Tenn., 1911; Gold Medal, Second Insular Fair, Porto Rico, 1911; Festival of Empire, London, England, 1911; Grand Prix, International Exposition, Petrograd, Russia, 1911; Grand Premix, International Exposition, Turn Italy, 1911; Gold Medal, International Exhibition, Leeds, England, ibis; Grand Prix and Diploma of Honor, Anglo-American Exhibition at London, England, in 1914; and the Gold Medal and Diploma of Honor, International Exposition at Lyons, France 1914. The State Commissioners of more than twenty States officially selected the Ethiopian for they're, respective State Buildings at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, Ca. , 1915. The New Mexico and Washington State Buildings of the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, Cal. 1915, also officially selected the Autopiano. In addition to this practically universal selection at these last two named exposition. , The Autopiano received at the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International Exposition the following awards: (1) The medal of Honor; (2) Gold Medal; (S) Silver Medal.

The Autopiano was also an official purveyor to the royal families of Japan and is in the palaces of Prince Shidlnadya and Prince ITO; they also enjoy this distinction in Korea where Prince Ye of the reigning dynasty had an Autopiano in his palace. Puccini used an Autopiano, and Victor Herbert the composer expressed his appreciation of this instrument.

Vessels in the United States and foreign navies purchased and used these instruments. The manner in which they stand up under all sorts of climatic conditions and hard usage incidents to life on the shipboard is strong evidence of their great durability.

Abbe Lorenzo Perosi, once the leader of the famous Sistine Choir of Rome. And director of all music used in the Catholic Church, honored The Autopiano Co. with a testimonial as to the artistic quality of this remarkable instrument. Autopiano was appointed as the official piano to the Holy See by His Holiness, Pius XI. , That appointment made the third consecutive Pontifical benediction, meant that the Autopiano was predominant at the Vatican. The Autopiano received further endorsements from Her Majesty, Elizabeth, Queen of the Belgians; Cardinal Mercer of Belgium, and the new American Cardinal Dougherty. The Autopiano enjoyed wonderful popularity in the United States Army. Seven auto pianos were shipped to be used at the Fortress Monroe. Nearly one hundred were in use in various army posts throughout the country before the war. During the war more than 200 were shipped to various cantonments throughout the United States bringing the total of the auto pianos in use in the United States Army to nearly 300. The most amazing thing was that these instruments were purchased by all of the aforementioned people and places.


As a player, using any eighty-eight note music roll, it was the Autopiano itself, electrically pumped. As a reproducing piano using the Welte-Mignon reproducing record, it presented the exact "tonal portrait" of the artist. Every gradation of tone, every change of the tempo, every dynamic modification was unerringly reproduced. The world's master pianists, most eminent composers recorded their art for the Welte-Mignon Model of The Autopiano.

This company of distinguished musicians includes Paderewski, Hofmann, Busoni, dePachmann. D'Albert, Lhevinne. Bloomfield-Zeisler, Sauer, Gabrilowitsch, Scharwenka, Ganz, Schelling, Caireno, Spross, Grieg, R. Strauss, Samaroff, Epstein, Fryer, Mero, LaForge, Saint)Saens, Leschetizky, Debussy, Leoncavallo, Lamond, Nikisch, Humperdinck and many others, as well as all the late popular lists played by New York's finest jazz artists.

The remarkable effects produced by the Welt-Mignon Model of the Autopiano (licensed) were made possible by the use of the Auto de Luxe Welte-Mignon player mechanism (licensee). The faithful recording of the artist's performance are procured by a secret process. How carefully the secret is guarded is demonstrated by the fact that no other reproducing piano has been able to approximate the results achieved through the Welt-Mignon mechanism, using the Welt Artist reproducing records. This instrument has been submitted to various comparison tests of the severest nature. And in every instance has been triumphant. The Welte-Mignons Model of The Autopiano (licensee) was, therefore, a great achievement in a double sense, in that it had artistic possibilities, second to none.


A high class player-piano manufactured in the Autotone Department of Hardman, Peck & Co., New York City. The Autotone possesses a number of exclusive features. Among which are: The Accentors, which accomplishes the "human touch" the ability to properly accent the melody; the "loud" pedal, the Selector, enabling one to run through a roll quickly and silently until the special part one has selected to play is reached; the Transposing Adjustor. Enabling one to transpose any composition from its original key specially valuable in accompanying singers and which also insures perfect adjustment of the music roll should it ever be affected by climatic changes: and the graduating lever by means of which the amount of tone can be he regulated the same as by the soft pedal; the Repertoire, containing an inexhaustible wealth of music of every kind. Unless the name Autotone, (spelled exactly as it sounds) appears on the fall board, the instrument is not genuine. The Autotone is made with two (and only two) basic pianos) Hardman and Harrington. Unless the basic piano is one of these, the instrument is not an Autotone, The Autotone is not a combination of a player mechanism made in one factory and piano made by another concern. It is, on the contrary, a complete player-piano of, the highest class, every portion of which player action, piano action and entire piano itself being made in one factory under the personal supervision of the experts of Hardman, Peck & Co.


Francis Bacon pianos and player pianos were made by The Bacon Piano Co., W. P. H. Bacon, president. The history of this company, starting in 1789, is the history of the piano business in America. It received medals and diplomas for the excellence of its instruments wherever they have been exhibited, notably at the Philadelphia World's Fair in 1876, and at Chicago in 1908. This instrument enjoyed unusual favor with the trade and the musical public, and was regarded as one of the most versatile of all desirable instruments in the market. Francis Bacon pianos, player pianos, electric expression players, reproducing pianos (licensed under Welte-Mignon patents) and grands had a century and a quarter of experience and "know how" behind them and emphasize unusual value at moderate prices.


This well known piano, established 1901, attained a good place among popular instruments. Instruments of extraordinary value which are guaranteed by Bjur Bros. Co. Factory, 707 Whitlock Ave., New York. In the matter of durability also, these pianos were desirable for home use where moderate cost was a consideration coupled with the natural desire to receive good value for the money invested. There were well more than 45,000 Bailey pianos sold in the United States. The Bailey Piano was controlled by Bjur Bros. Co. New York, N.Y. Bailey pianos were manufactured by Bjur who also manufactured the American Piano, not connected to The AMERICAN PIANO COMPANY, East Rochester N.Y. Bjur was bought out during 1928 by Kohler & Campbell - Bailey pianos were also manufactured as Brambach.


Pianos bearing this well known and an honorable name was the product of The Baldwin Piano Mfg.Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and were. In the best sense of the word, instruments of the highest degree of excellence. The system or chain of scientific improvements peculiar to the Baldwin piano based on the law of acoustics, and known as the Baldwin acoustic system, which permitted the greatest conservation of tone, secures an artistic result of the highest quality, and has resulted in gaining for. It a leading position among the world's artistic musical instruments. The Baldwin piano has an individuality of the highest character. When it was exhibited at the International Exposition at Paris in 1900 it was honored with an award (The Grand Prix) which has never been bestowed on any, other American piano, and the highest honor ever received by any, piano made In America. The Baldwin pianos are made in most modem and perfectly equipped factories under ideal manufacturing conditions. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904, the Baldwin piano was again awarded the Grand Prize and still another Grand Prize was awarded the Baldwin pianos and Manualos at the Anglo-American Exposition, London, 1914. The "New York Tribune," in commenting on the comprehensive display of the Baldwin Company at Paris, and the success of this piano and this house, said that they made a record that would never he forgot in the history of uprights, grands and reproducing pianos, the grands including the various sizes from concert grands to small grands for parlors. In Rome, 1923, the Baldwin piano was awarded the Papal Medal and the House of Baldwin appointed "Purveyors to the Holy See." The Baldwin piano is recognized as a universal favorite between the leading operatic artists and virtuosos of the pianoforte. The Baldwin Manualo is a unification of the most artistic piano with the most scientific players' construction; in other words, it combines the highest artistic attainment in piano production with the most gratifying ability of performance. The entire output is controlled by The Baldwin Piano Company.

The Baldwin Grand Piano, designed, built and guaranteed by the Baldwin Company, Loveland, Ohio, is used exclusively by the first rank of artists in all spheres of musical expression - pianists, composers, conductors, singers, instrumentalists - as well as the outstanding symphony orchestras around the world and in music festivals everywhere. Without reservation, from the nine-foot concert grand to the five feet, two inch grand, every Baldwin embodies the latest concepts of acoustical science and piano making, it is a precision engineered musical instrument of the highest degree of excellence. Any Baldwin made piano is worth the time. Money and energy to rebuild or refurbish. Baldwin also builds Howard spinet and grand pianos, and Hamilton studio pianos for home and school, all maintain great resale value.


A reliable instrument of good reputation, made by The Baus Piano Co. at Southern Boulevard and Trinity Avenue, New York; also makers of the Baus Player Piano. Baus pianos and players had been acknowledged to be of popular and durable manufacture. They are made in handsome styles and were depended upon for substantial ability. This industry is controlled by Jacob Doll & Sons. , Inc.


A piano that has won a distinct place and is recognized by the public as an excellent instrument that may be found in many of the foremost piano houses throughout the country. Also very prominent is the famous "Solo Concerto," which has attained to a powerful place in the entertainment world, the "Drachmann," equally admirable, and other players such as the "Meldorf," "Vollmer"and "Bellmann,' H.C. BAY makes its own cases, backs, metal parts and has its own plating plant. The H. C. Bay players' actions, distinguished for its simplicity, ease of operation and durability. Is used in all players produced by the company. It is a notable fact that the H. C. Bay instruments have developed a larger demand within the period of their manufacture than any other instruments. Increasing business forced the company out of its Chicago factory early in 1917, and an extensive plant at Bluffton, Indiana, was purchased, where now the above-mentioned players are built under most favorable conditions. Manufactured hand-crafted pianos under a various name which was a common practice during that time.


Manufactured by Becker Bros. (incorporated), whose factory is at 52nd St. and 10th Ave., New York. Pianos of great merit in which the skill and experience of the makers are clearly evinced. And which rapidly increased in fame and demand. Mr. Jacob H. Becker. The founder of the Becker Bros. piano, were a recognized expert and he trained his associates who sustained the fine character of the house and the instruments of its manufacture. The piano is well known for its tonal quality superior mechanical features and durability. It is representative of the better class of the American piano, and thoroughly merits the confidence which the public reposes in it. The Becker Bros. player- piano is equally meritorious and is noted for its simplicity of construction and ease of operation. It also contains some exclusive features of merit. Pianos of great merit in which the skill and rience of the makers are clearly evident. Grand pianos worthy of rebuilding.


Name of well-made and handsomely designed player pianos manufactured by the H. C. Bay Company in the factories of that industry at Bluffton, Ind. Bellmann player pianos stand well among the better class of popular instruments and they may be commended with assurance of satisfactory results.


Manufactured by a veteran organization which has been actively engaged in making pianos since the year 1851. Behr upright and grand pianos are distinguished far their beautiful tone, their handsome and distinctive designs, their exquisite craftsmanship and great durability. Behr player-pianos are famed for their exclusive and distinctive expression devices, which make possible the most artistic effects. Highest awards have been granted the well-known Behr Bros. instruments at leading worlds' fairs and centennial expositions, such as New Orleans, 1885; Melbourne. 1888, and Chicago. 1893.

Xavier Scharwenka. Moritz Moszkowski, S. B. Mills, Edottard Remenyi and a host of other world famous artists and composers. Etc., have unqualifiedly endorsed the instruments bearing the Behr Bros. & Co.

The Behr Reproducing Piano (licensed under Welte-Mignon patents) is a notable addition to. This artistic line, and is three complete and distinctive instruments in one A piano, a player-piano. A reproducing piano. The Behr Reproducing Piano actually reproduces or creates the world's greatest compositions, played by pianists of international fame. There are hundreds of artists' hand-played music rolls available for this remarkable instrument.


Behning & Son pianos were made in the same factory as the Behr Brothers made by Kohler & Campbell, Behning & Son pianos were known for their elegant cabinet styles. Grand pianos were distinguished for their beautiful tone, their handsome and distinctive designs, their exquisite craftsmanship and great durability. Worthy of rebuilding. The instruments manufactured by the Behning Piano Co., New York City, are well and favorably known, having been originally established in 1861, by the late Henry Behning, a piano-maker of skill and experience.

GEORGE P. BENT CO This name was one of the most widely known in connection with American pianos. This name was established in 1870. Geo.P.Bent pianos and player-pianos, including grands, are instruments of unchallenged quality. The famous "Crown" piano has won international fame before the Gen. P. Bent Co. acquired it. The factory and offices were located in Louisville, Ky. The instruments were of the same fine character and tone quality for which the Crown has long been noted. Pianos, player pianos and grand pianos are manufactured. This name was one of the most widely known pianos in connection with American pianos.

BENNETT The Bennett Piano Company was established in 1901, and instruments bearing the name, from the first, has always been of fine quality and thoroughly reliable construction. They are characterized by tone quality at once powerful and sympathetic. They have sustained a place among the most attractive in case designs, and in every particular their construction has been worthy of the commendation which has been accorded to them by competent critic L. Bennett player-pianos and Bennett grand pianos have no- less won the favor of people of discriminating tastes. The history of the Bennett piano presents the story of a consistent striving to attain a place among the artistic American instruments. It was first designed by one of the recognized acousticians of the industry' and the musical scale has been developed and refined through the years until the manufacturers became satisfied that, construction and the tonal results of the musical scale, there were nothing lacking to entitle the Bennett to a place above the ordinary excellencies, and absolutely secure in the estimation of those competent to judge.

BENNINGTON Pianos and player-pianos of durable character, made by Becker Bros.

BERNARD Pianos and players of admirable character were the product of Decker & Son

BERKSHIRE Made by the Jewett Piano Co. Berkshire pianos have musical sweetness of tone.

BIDDLE The Biddle Piano Co. of New York City was established in 1860 by John Biddle, Biddle instruments were of the popular kind and have been turned out in large quantities. Both pianos and player pianos were made at the factory located at New York City

BILLINGS Good pianos bearing this name are made by Weser Bros. New York City. In 1895 Weser Bros. assumed control of the Billings piano company and continued to manufacture them as a hand crafted, beautifully sculpted works of art.

BJUR BROS. Thoroughly commendable pianos and player-pianos of fine tone quality made by the Bjur Bros. Co., in their factory in New York.

BLACKSTONE Pianos of popular character of this name are made by the Geo. P. Bent Co.

BOARDMAN & GRAY The house of Boardman & Gray was established in 1887, by Wm. G. Boardman , Albany. N. Y.

BOGART Made by the Bogart Piano Co.,. , New York. Pianos, player pianos, grand pianos of durable character produced under the supervision of a practical piano expert of many years' experience

BOND By PACKARD Bond Pianos were made by The Packard Piano Company, Fort Wayne, Indiana. Under the thoroughly tried and efficient form of cooperation which has been applied to the factory of the makers of the Bond instrument that bears it has made progress almost phenomenal. By that system of a copartnership of labor and profits the Packard Piano Company has exemplified the truth of the maxim that "Good work is not done by tired men" It is a policy of fellowship that actuates the makers of Bond pianos and that gives to its progress uncommon interest. The Bond Piano Co. was organized and incorporated under the Indiana State laws in the fall of 1911, by the stock holders of 'The Packard Piano Company. The old established Fort Wayne, Ind. industry. Early in 1913 at a meeting of the stockholders of the two companies, a thorough analysis of the situation proved the expense of the management, production and selling were greater less than two units than it would be less than one. While the working force could be maintained separate and distinct in every way, in the manufacture of the Bond Piano and the Packard piano, greater efficiency could be obtained in management, production and selling by The Packard Piano Company taking over the Bond Company, using the Bond Piano Co. as its trademark for Bond. Pianos manufactured by the Packard Piano Company were built by the owners of the company, which are all of the employees were paid based on a profit-sharing method. By that system of a copartnership of labor and profits made its progress phenomenal, and the quality of the instrument just a little bit better than instruments of the same grade. Prices are for Grand pianos. Worthy of rebuilding.

BRADBURY One of the great names in the American piano industry. Founded over a half century ago, it attained to a place very high in the world of art. It is an instrument of the highest grade. The materials which enter into its construction are of the finest, the scale is recognized by experts to be of peculiar sweetness and power, and the Bradbury has been the favorite with numberless critics and pianists. All of the good points of the Bradbury piano are found in the players of the same name. The famous instrument is controlled by W. P. Haines & of New York. With factories at Leominster, Mass.

BRAMBACH The developments of an instrument so individual in character as the Brambach grand piano present the accumulative existence of many generations; each generation adding to its heritage and pointing the way to further advancement in the art to which this family had been devoted. It was, therefore, natural that the products of the Brambach factories were supreme in musical quality and purity of tone. Correctly made, theoretically and mechanically, the grand piano manufactured by the Brambach Piano Co. was the embodiment of artistic grace and individuality of tone. Realizing that a small grand, of suitable size for the average home, would not only fill a popular demand but would bring within the range of the music lovers a rich and Mellow tone possessing the same brilliancy and singing quality as the larger grands, the Brambach Piano Co. had centered special efforts upon the smallest grand made in this country. Every Brambach Grand piano contained the exclusive patented Brambach Tone Expander and guaranteed soundboard. The Tone Expander released and greatly increased the volume of tone, producing a volume of tone that was usually found in large size grands. The Brambach Player Grand combined the piano and a player mechanism of unmatched quality.

Every attention necessary was given construction, for the cases, actions, hammers, etc., was constructed in these modern factories. The piano actions used in the Brambach Grands were made in their entirety in the Brambach plant and embody a number of their own patents. These actions were conceded to be remarkable for their ease, reputation and durability. Also, make Reproducing Grand pianos containing the Auto deluxe Welte-Mignon Reproducing action. Brambach grands are made in three sizes, 4 feet 8 inches, 5 feet, 5 inches, respectively. The Brambach instruments are guaranteed by the manufacturers, whose financial responsibility is unquestioned.

BREWSTER The Brewster piano is one of the best known and most popular instruments of its grade in the market today. There have been sold within the past few years many thousands of Brewster pianos and players. In fact, there is hardly a place in the United States where the Brewster is not represented by the leading piano houses of the country and, as above stated, very extensively sold. The case designs of the Brewster piano are created in accordance 'with the prevailing vogue in furniture, and its reputation has been greatly enhanced by the attractiveness of styles. The scales of the Brewster piano have been drafted with the utmost accuracy, and the quality of materials used and the care exercised in its manufacture combine in making an instrument of an especially good quality and durability.

BRIGGS Briggs Piano Co., Boston, Mass., a famous house, was established 1868, by the late C. Briggs, Sr., who was among the first in Boston to permanently make uprights. See Jacob Doll & Sons

BRINKERHOFF These pianos, player- pianos, grands and reproducers were the products of a responsible Chicago organization, at the head of which was Mr. William T. Brinkerhoff. They are instruments of unquestioned merit, great durability and tone quality of fascinating character being marked features. The case designs are graceful and varied from the elegant plain to the highly ornamental Brinkerhoff pianos are sold by enterprising houses throughout the country and always with most satisfactory results. They are pianos in which the advantages of advanced method of manufacture have the force of experience to guide them' and the personal energies and standing of Mr. Brinkerhoff add greatly to the enthusiasm which mark the sale of these instruments. The Brinkerhoff upright reproducing piano can be played either manually as a regular piano, or as a foot powered player piano, or as a reproducing instrument, in which the exact interpretations of the foremost artists of the world are reproduced. It is a combination of a player piano with special patented devices that automatically regulate the expression. The Brinkerhoff Grand pianos are noted for their tonal qualities, and they are so constructed that they meet the approval of the most critical musicians. This company specializes on Miniature Grands, which are only 5 feet in length, but possess the qualities of a larger Grand.

BRAUMULLER Pianos, player- pianos and Reproducing pianos made by the Braumuller Piano Co., of Union City, N. J., Braumuller pianos and player-pianos were instruments of good standing in the musical world and they were considered as safe investments.

BROWN BROS. Pianos, player-pianos and grand pianos bearing this name were the products of the Brown Bros. Piano Co., of 202 Park Square building, Boston. The instruments were thoroughly dependable and of a quality to commend them to critical buyers. Mr. Roger S. Brown, president of the corporation, had put in his entire life in the piano business, having been associated with some of the noted eastern industries, including the Ivers & Pond, the Estey Piano Co., the McPhail Piano Co. and others equally well known. He knows what a good piano should be and is determined to produce nothing less.

BUTLER BROS. These pianos and player- pianos are the products of a small industry in Cincinnati. They are made for the retail, which is consigned to the factory outlets.

BUSH & GERTS The "Grandette" was one of the favorite styles of the Bush & Gerts. It was a small grand piano 5 feet 4 inches in length, and the "Midgette Grand," of equal merit, was but 4 feet 9 inches in length. The Bush & Gerts pianos were manufactured in one of the largest and most thoroughly equipped factories in the world. The company controlling the Bush & Gerts was one of the strongest in the piano industry and the aim was to sustain the distinction which the instruments have gained in the long and persistent reaching out for perfection in tone production. In the ware rooms of the foremost piano merchants of the world the Bush & Gerts pianos were presented as instruments worthy of the highest and most discriminating trade. The Bush & Gerts factory was located at Rockford, Ill.

BUSH & LANE In This well-known bouse, established in 1901. Was incorporated under the laws of Illinois; capital, $2,500,000. Through the high character of its methods, due to the knowledge and experience of the members of its official directors, this concern was to become one of the strongest and best known piano manufacturing concerns in the West, and the instruments which it manufactures are recognized by critical artists for being among the highest grade instruments. For several years the factory was located in Chicago, but seeking more room and a better environment for building a factory wherein their ideals could be he more successfully carried out' the company located in Holland. Mich. The Bush & Lane factory there is one of the finest in equipment and arrangement that can be found in the country. The workmen are experts, thoroughly in accord with the idea of producing instruments of quality and are ably supervised by the president of the company, who is recognized as one of America's most prominent masters of acoustics, designers and originators of special features of piano construction, many of which are patented. The company also owns and uses exclusively in its products the famous Caecilian players' action, one of the pioneer players' mechanisms, which has always maintained a leading position and which is one of the most efficient, durable, easily operated players in the field, possessing wonderful expressiveness and containing many special features that are patented and used only by this concern.

Musical quality and durability of construction were the characteristics of Bush & Lane. The success of the conscientious and painstaking efforts of the makers of the Bush & Lane is exemplified in the wide use their instruments have attained by. Musical authorities, conservatories. Teachers and concert artists and in the homes of thousands of musically appreciative people throughout the land. This success has come from the steadfast maintenance, by the makers, of a policy of high grade manufacturing, in which the finest materials are wrought into flawless musical instruments through the application of scientific knowledge, long experience, skilled workmanship and thorough methods. The makers of the Bush & Lane are not content with mediocre results, and are constantly striving to improve they have made valuable discoveries which have been applied to their products in the form of special features for producing and perpetuating musical tone. The Bush & Lane grand is unique for the volume and purity of its tone and tile durable character of its construction. It is doubtful whether the sympathetic tone possessed by the smallest of the Bush & Lane Grands has been surpassed in any other grand of its size. The wonderful power and charming sweetness of tone of the entire line of Bush & Lane grands has been enthusiastically acclaimed by all musicians who have played them. Bush & Lane uprights are grands in upright form and contain actual grand plate and back construction. The beauty of tone thus produced obviously cannot be claimed by an upright made in the ordinary way. This Grand plate and back construction in upright position is fully covered by exclusive patents and is among the most important advances in upright piano tone production that had ever been made in any generation.

BUSH & LANE CECILIAN This famous name, which has been known in the piano players' industry for a score of years, is owned by the Bush & Lane Piano Co. and is used to designate the players' pianos of the Bush & Lane and Victor lines. The Cecilian players' action, manufactured exclusively by the Bush & Lane Piano Co., contains many valuable improvements and special features to humanize the playing that is not found in other players. It's ease of operation. It's freedom from trouble, its responsiveness to the controls that enable the operator to produce artistic musical effects place the Cecilian in a class by itself and. Coupled with the excellent pianos in which it is installed, the Bush & Lane and Victor, it produces musical instruments of the most advanced type, capable of operation easily with the most charming musical effects even by those who have no technical knowledge of music or of the piano keyboard.

CABLE The Cable piano was an instrument of very high standing and one which also attained great popularity that was sold extensively in all parts of the world. The immense prestige The Cable Company, rendered the "Cable" a desirable piano from the standpoint of name brand recognition, as well as superb quality, stability, and tone that possessed a pleasing attribute of an exceptional richness and exquisite delicacy. A Cable piano not only had the best qualities that can distinguish instruments of high standing, those superior qualities of tone and action which were rendered possible by a construction and design

Especially adequate to the production of such desirable results. Embodied in the upright model was a patented sound board and frame construction which is a new and exclusive feature. Instruments having this construction bear the trademark "Tone Arch." The patented sounding-board-and-frame construction, in the grand model is a simple but most effective devices, consisting of a curved bracing member built into the frame. This is a part of an improved construction designed to maintain the proper curvature of the soundboard necessary to preserve the original tonal beauty of the instrument. Instruments having this construction bear the trade mark "Crown stay." The Cable Reproducing Grand has all the merits of the regular Cable Grand, including the famous "Crown stay" construction. Combined with a reproducing action made exclusively Cable which has been developed to the highest stage of perfection through a long series of experiments carried on in the great Cable factories.

An addition to the Cable line was the Midget piano which presented remarkable features. It was but 44 inches high and 55 inches in length, it was not a makeshift; not a toy; and not a compromise. It was a full-fledged upright, built to meet every single exacting Cable standard of quality and workmanship. It was used in places where this little instrument was highly practical. In the school room the small apartment, the den, or on the veranda of the summer home. Because of its small Size and weight, the Cable Midget Upright was always readily moved about. No job was too difficult for this staunch little instrument: it was endowed with an unusual ability to withstand even more trying conditions of service than most larger pianos are called upon to meet. It was the forerunner of all of the vertical pianos of today. The Cable Player, Style "PL," contained all the very important and exclusive Cable features which made the Cable line of players famous. It was extremely easy to operate. A powerful, exclusive type motor provided a steady flow of power at all times. The "Wrist-Rest," a patented Cable device, enabled the operator to rest the arm in maintain a natural, non- tiring position while playing. The pedals when not in use folded completely out of sight giving it the appearance of a regular upright piano when played as a normal piano.

Manufactured by The Cable Company, of Chicago, a piano manufacturing enterprise unsurpassed in the amount of the product or in financial strength by any other institution of similar character in the world's musical industries. The Cable piano is an instrument of very high standing and one which has also attained great popularity and is sold extensively in all parts of the United States and largely abroad. The immense prestige of The Cable Company, and the great financial strength of that progressive industry, which employs more than $9,000,000 capital and surplus, render the "Cable" piano a desirable one from the standpoint of security. This piano, bearing as it does, the name of this big company, represents to an unusual degree, big value. It possesses that pleasing attribute, an exceptionally sweet tone, one of richness and exquisite delicacy, especially recommending it for parlor use. Its lasting qualities are as unexcelled as skill, first class workmanship and patient attention to the infinite details of piano building can insure. The Cable piano not only has the best qualities that distinguish an instrument of high standing, but those superior qualities of tone and action which are rendered possible by a construction and design especially adequate to the production of such desirable results. Embodied in the upright model is a patented sound board and frame construction which is a new and exclusive feature. Instruments having this construction bear the trademark "Tone-Arch." The patented sounding-board-and-frame construction, in the grand model is a simple but most effective device, consisting of a curved bracing member built into the frame. This Is a part of an improved construction designed to maintain the proper curvature of the sound board. So necessary to preserve the original tonal beauty of the instrument. Instruments having this construction bear the trademark "Crowns stay." The Cable Reproducing Grand has all the merits of the regular Cable Grand, including the famous "Crown stay" construction. Combined with it is a reproducing action exclusively Cable which has been developed to the highest stage of perfection through a long series of experiments carried on in the great Cable factories. A recent addition to the Cable line is the Midget Upright which presents some remarkable features. It is but '44 inches high and 55 inches in length. But it is not a makeshift not a toy, not a compromise. It is a full-fledged upright piano, built to meet every exacting cable standard of quality and workmanship. There are scores of places where this little instrument is highly practical in the school room, the small apartment, and the den, or on the veranda of the summer home. Because of its small Size and weight, the Cable Midget Upright may be readily moved about. No service is too difficult for this staunch little instrument: it is endowed with an unusual ability to withstand even more trying conditions of service than most larger pianos are called upon to meet. The Cable Player, Style "PL," contains all the important exclusive Cable features which have made the Cable line of players famous. This player is extremely easy to operate. A powerful, exclusive type motor provides a steady flow of power at all times. The "Wrist-Rest," a patented Cable device, enables the operator to maintain a natural, untiring position while playing. When not in use the pedals fold completely out of sight, giving it the appearance of a regular upright piano when played by hand.

CABLE & SONS These instruments are made of good material and possess elements of great popularity. The industry was established at Albany in 1852. and has been active in New York City for a great many years and was incorporated in 1923.

HOBART M. CABLE Instruments bearing this name are manufactured by The Hobart M. Cable Co., Laporte, Indiana. The distinctive characteristics of the Hobart M. Cable piano are remarkably sweet and pure tone qualities combined with unusual power. The construction of the piano is notable for its solidity and compactness and fora number of superior features, which contribute to the general excellence. The scale, which is the scientific basis of quality in the Hobart M. Cable piano, is of the even, unbroken and satisfying kind that appeals to the trained musical ear. It is the inner secret of the great growth of the Hobart M. Cable piano's fame. In a word, it may be said that the Hobart M. Cable piano is a remarkable instrument, possessing all of the essentials of a strictly high-grade piano. , Purity and sweetness of tone, evenness of scale, great durability, superb case designs in the richest of woods, and high commercial value. Its reputation, now impregnably secure, has extended from ocean to ocean and even beyond the nation's boundaries. It is a piano high up between the recognized leaders and one whose brilliant career has already been fixed and whose future is secure. The player-piano bearing the same name possesses all of the admirable characteristics of the piano and may safely be recommended. Hobart M. Cable reproducing piano is marked by the same characteristics as the players and pianos with the remarkable control and interpretive powers added.

CABLE-NELSON "Cable-Nelson" was a name so well established that it was to become the first rank of the piano industry on the strength of the excellence of its product and the high standard of its business policy. There was a wide and constant growing demand on the part of the average piano buyer for a thoroughly high-grade and player-piano of real musical excellence. This demand to which the Cable-Nelson Piano Co. had addressed itself from the very beginning of its career, both to supply it and to foster it. Its motto is "A real piano and a fair price." The remarkable growth of the company bears witnesses to the soundness of its policy and its success in carrying it out. Its instruments were distinguished by their fine tone quality, excellent work of case design and finish. Cable-Nelson pianos embodied the characteristics of best standards in the art of player construction. A piano-player mechanism is most responsive and musically adequate, and the tone quality just right for the best player results. The Cable-Nelson factory is one of the most attractively located in the trade, and the wonderful efficiency of its organization and equipment is the cause of general comment. The high financial and commercial standing of the company and the reputation and experiences of its officers add to the distinction of the excellent and reliable instrument.

J. C. CAMPBELL Manufactured by Kohler & Campbell, Inc., Fiftieth and Eleventh Ave., New York City. A well made a thoroughly reliable medium priced piano, named after the late J. C. Campbell, a piano maker of unquestioned skill. The J. C. Campbell piano was first produced in 1900, and it has well sustained the fame of the man whose name it bears. This piano has received a great number of unsolicited testimonials, all attesting to remarkable value at moderate prices.

CAROLA INNER-PLAYER This name is used exclusively by The Cable Company to designate their pneumatic players' mechanism embodied in the Carola and Conover Carola Inner-Play Pianos. The Carola Inner-Player pneumatic action represents the latest developments in interior ph. mg mechanisms. An especially desirable feat is the fact that all the various part which to make tip Carola Inner Player- pianos is mainly the shops and plant of The Cable Company thus providing for the most accurate adjustment and the building up of the instrument as a solo unit. and not as a collection of assembled parts maunder varying standards of other factories. This construction is endorsed by ugh musical authorities providing the means for the most artistic rendition capable of the greatest expression and showing a perfection and finish in workmanship that in itself is why this company was the first to guarantee its play mechanism for five years. These exclusive features of the Carola Inner-Player mechanism which have contributed toward its phenomenal success in the past few years, have been the transposing device; pneumatic clutch unit motors; easy running roil mechanism introduction of fibre in contact with metal to eliminate rattles when playing by hand; counter shaft running direct motor drive without the sounds of chains when playing; a miniature keyboard on the pneumatic action for procuring an exceptional responsive touch; metallic construction of parts usual affected by atmospheric changes; Solo-Aid Device which plays the solo or melody louder than the accompaniment; four controlling levers: tempo indicators close music sheet facilitating the following of marks the on; cover for lever which also affords a comfort rest for the wrists; sectional bellows construction easily disconnected and removed to afford access to parts otherwise concealed; slide valves transfixed by steel to prevent warping; easy pedaling due to a patented leverage system; automatic Triplex Pedal Device, which the pedals automatically released from a returned to the case by the simplest possible movement. The Carola Inner-Player action requiring a minimum of room, permits the placement of a stronger back on the piano, thus assuring durability.

CHASE,A.B. Established in 1885. This is an honored name in the annals of music in America, being closely associated with the love and development of music in the American home. A.B. Chase pianos have always been known for splendid workmanship. The A.B. Chase baby grand in fair condition is worth rebuilding at a considerable cost.


Chickering & Sons celebrated in 1923 the completion of a century of continuous manufacture of the Chickering pianos. This illustrious firm, the oldest piano house in the United States, has been at all times in the forefront and has received world wide recognition for its part in developing the pianoforte on distinctive lines.

Jonas Chickering, the founder, was born at Mason Village, New Hampshire, in April 1796, where, after a sound schooling, he thoroughly learned the business of cabinetmaking. Impelled by a restless ambition to seek a larger field, he went to Boston in his early twenties.

There he entered the factory of a well-known piano maker of those days and pursued a course of study in piano making in its then primitive stage. It was not long before the genius of Jonas Chickering manifested itself, and he introduced a series of changes and improvements which have since become standard and which revolutionized the methods then prevailing. His name from the earliest times has been constantly linked with the Americanizing of the piano by methods of such importance and value that both America and Europe today admit their worth by universal adoption. To him must be ascribed the invention of the full iron plate for grand pianos recorded in 1837. This invention was accepted by the scientific world as one of far reaching importance; indeed, it proved to be the foundation of all modern piano construction, for without it the sonorous grands of today would not have been impossible. It successfully solved the problem of the proper support for the great strain of the strings and defined a new era in the history of piano-making. In 1843, Jonas Chickering invented a new deflection of the strings and in 1845 the first practical method for over stringing in square pianos, that is, instead of setting the strings side by side, substituting an arrangement of them in two banks, one over the other, not only saving space but bringing the powerful bass strings directly over the most resonant part of the sound-board, a principle which obtains to this day in the construction of all pianos, both grands and uprights. Until the year 1852, Jonas Chickering superintended each department of his business with his usual scrupulous care but was relieved of much of this responsibility upon his taking into partnership his three sons, all of whom had received under their father a practical training of the highest order. The genius of C. Frank Chickering as a "scale" draftsman soon became internationally know and acknowledged and to his extensive scientific research is to be attributed much of the renowned beauty of the Chickering tone. Not content with retaining this invaluable knowledge himself he imparted the secrets of his studies to those in the factory in whose gifts he had confidence, thus insuring their perpetuation. In addition to the many patents taken out by Jonas Chickering, his sons and their successors, various methods exclusive to themselves have also been employed and there are in constant use operations of an abstract character which may be described as mechanical subtleties possessing great value and which are an integral part of the Chickering system.

The above outline of the significant importance of the Chickering system will appeal to the practical minded but to those who would know more of the romance and charm which the Chickering story holds for the student of America's musical development. The significance and historic value of the Chickering in the development of the pianoforte in America are seen in the preservation at the Ford Museum at Dearborn of several important Chickering including the very first instrument made by Jonas Chickering in 1823. Others are: the first Chickering upright made in 1830 and the first Chickering grand completed prior to 1850. Chickering & Sons have received upwards of 200 first medals and awards. These have been received from States and sovereigns, and international expositions and learned societies in all parts of the world embracing every known method of honoring distinguished merit. C. Frank Chickering was personally vested with the Imperial Cross of the Legion of Honor at the hands of Napoleon 111. The significance of this high honor is the more appreciated because of its extreme rarity, very few such honors having been bestowed for accomplishments in the fine arts. In 1923 Chickering & Sons were the recipients of a remarkable tribute from musicians and persons of prominence in all walks of life who united in celebrating the Hundredth Anniversary of the founding of Jonas Chickering's epoch making enterprises.

A committee headed by the Hon. Calvin Coolidge (then Vice) President of the United States, carried to a successful and brilliant conclusion what was termed the Jonas Chickering Centennial Celebration, culminating in a banquet held at the Copley Plaza, Boston, at which Mr. Coolidge was the chief speaker. It marked in a most significant manner a century of musical achievement that is without parallel in the history of American piano making. The most famous virtuosi including pianists, singers and instrumentalists have exhausted superlatives in expressing their high admiration of the Chickering. The Handel and Haydn Society of Boston the world's foremost oratorio group, established 1815, has used the Chickering exclusively for more than a century.

The grand and upright pianos and the grands and uprights with the Ampico, which bear this famous name, possess the distinction which belongs to the oldest continuous piano industry in the United States. In the year 1923 a nation wide observance of the Jonas Chickering Centennial marked the completion of a full century of artistic musical endeavor of the Chickering house. Calvin Coolidge, then Vice President, was the principal speaker at the banquet in Boston on April 21st. The founder of this illustrious house was Jonas Chickering whose name is inseparably associated with many of the most important piano improvements of all time. He was born in Mason Village, N. H., on April 17, 1759, and in his early twenties he went to Boston. He had already learned thoroughly the cabinet making trade, and his education had been thorough. He soon entered the employ of the pioneers' piano maker of those days, and began a course of serious study of the art which was to engross his life. The genius of Jonas Chickering soon made itself apparent and his industry kept pace. He revolutionized the methods of piano building, and with the introduction of his full iron plate, an advance of measureless importance, laid the foundation of the recognition which has ever since been accorded his name. So universally has the importance of this improvement been recognized that pianos are no longer made without it. It is but a short time back that the first Chickering piano ever made was repurchased by the Boston house and it is now in possession of the company, a source of pride to the present management and of interest to all music lovers. It illustrates the vast advance in piano building between the early days of the piano and the massive concert grands of today. In 1883 Jonas Chickering took into partnership his three sons, all of whom had received a practical training. C. Frank Chickering proved the inheritor of his father's genius, and as a"scale' draftsman soon became widely known. To his dimensional and correlated studies are to be attributed much of the renowned beauty of the Chickering tone. The secrets of this invaluable knowledge he imparted to chiefs in the Boston factory, in whose gifts he had confidence, thus insuring their perpetuation. Not only were many patents taken out by Jonas Chickering, his sons and their successors, but various methods exclusive to themselves have also been employed, and there are in constant use operations of an abstract character which maybe described as mechanical subtleties which are an integral part of the Chickering system. Chickering & Sons have been recipients of upwards of 150 marks of distinction both in the United States and Europe, in the form of diploma, gold medals, and letters from learned bodies. C. Frank Chickering himself was personally invested with the Imperial Cross of the Legion of Honor by the hands of Napoleon III. Less than ten such honors having been bestowed for accomplishment in the fine arts, which fact adds significance to the distinction. Every recognized means of showing marked appreciation has been employed in all parts of the world. The most famous virtuosi have exhausted eulogistic language In declaring their admiration of the Chickering piano. But Chickering & Sons have never rested upon laurels won. The Chickering of today has kept pace with the exacting demands made upon the piano by present day artists. During the present season the Chickering Concert Grands are contributing to the aesthetic success artists as Dohnanyi, Mirovitch, Schnitzer, Levinne, and many others of the highest rank. Remarkable in employees. There are men living who worked with Jonas Chickering, a long life time of service which the house has been glad to honor. There are also scores who have been engaged in the Chickering departments for periods a running from 25 to nearly 50 years. This implies loyalty and esprit de corps invaluable in this art industry, and which is a reflection of its atmosphere. The House of Chickering stands in unquestioned financial strength and enjoys an integrity which has been its proud possession from the beginning.

The list of pianists, composers, and musicians who have since its inception used and endorsed the Chickering piano is much to long to include here. Several decades ago, this great house of pianos, content with its already rich background of achievement on the concert stage, turned its attention to the perfection of the smaller piano. The Chickering is essentially a piano for the home. Pianos of the highest degree of quality, both in craftsmanship and materials, worthy of completely rebuilding and refinishing.

CAMBRIDGE Popular pianos and p layer-pianos, manufactured by the Cambridge Piano Co., 89 Southern Boulevard, New York City, which makes also a specialty of pianos and player-pianos but 3 ft. 9 in. and 4 ft. 3 in height. These attractive uprights' height perfectly the requirements of schools and apartment houses. They are instruments of admirable qualities in every way and are sold at prices within reach of the American householder. The styles are designated as zero and F respectively.

CARTER Pianos, players, grands, electric and reproducing piano bearing this name are manufactured in a well-equipped factory at 632 W. 51st St., New York City, and are possessed of extraordinary tone qualities. They are made by skilled workmen of the finest materials obtainable, and have established a reputation for themselves as honestly built, reliable pianos of exceptional value.

CHASE BROTHERS The high grade production of the Chase Hackley Piano Co., of Muskegon, Mich. An artistic instrument whose wide fame has been won by years of striving to attain to the perfection of an ideal American piano. The history of the "Chase Bros." Piano dates back more than 62 years. From the first there has been but one aim so far as the quality of the instrument is concerned. There has been nothing spared to bring the "Chase Bros." Piano to the highest point of perfection, and as a necessary consequence the cost of the instrument is proportionate to that of the other first class instruments. Chase Brothers pianos are made in artistic grands and uprights of most approved models. They contain a number of patented features and they are manufactured by the most skilled workmen. Refer to Chase- Hackley Piano Co.



The A. B. Chase piano factory was established in 1875 and produces the highest grade pianos both in uprights and grands. The A. B. Chase pianos are also equipped with the Cello Reproducing Medium. The policy of this factory' has long been that no material is too good a piano no skilled labor too expensive if it will improve the A. B. Chase piano. All pianos manufactured from 1875 to 1922 were completely hand made from the finest materials available during that era. An A.B. Chase piano took as long as two years to complete. All A.B. Chase pianos are worthy of rebuilding. Pianos from the earlier time 1875 to 1922 are exceptional.

CHASE & BAKER Est. 1900. Buffalo, New York

CHASSAIGNE, FRERES (Bros), Calle Valencia 70, Barcelona, Spain. Est. 1864.

CHRISTMAN One of the old and reputable names in the American piano industry, Christman pianos, player-pianos and grand pianos are everywhere recognized as instruments of a high grade and they are commended b a large number of the foremost piano merchants throughout the world. The Christman "Studio" grand has made a noteworthy success. It is but 5 feet long but p05 uses tone power comparable with the effects of the larger instruments. The Christman slogan of "The First Touch Tells" (registered), has become familiar in musical circles for being suggestive of the attractive tone quality of the instruments. The Christman Reproducing Grand is a recognized triumph in piano manufacture. The Christman Studio Grand holds an enviable place among the dainty little instruments of the grand design. It possesses a powerful tone of most agreeable resonance and it is one of the most successful instruments with trade and public.

CECILIAN Name of a famous pioneer player-piano of the highest grade which presents very scientific and indestructible features. This instrument is described in the article or the Bush & Lane instruments on a preceding page to which refer. The Cecilian is capable of absolutely perfect expression, and it is representative of the most advanced ideas in player mechanism. It has been before the world for a good many years and is claimed to be the first of the players.

THE CELLO This is the name given to the reproducing players' mechanism installed in the A. B. Chase, Emerson and Lindeman & Sons' pianos, which are controlled by the United Piano Corporation. The Cello Reproducing Medium reproduces the work of such artists as Paderewski, Hoffmann, Bauer. Gabrilowitsch and hundreds of others of worldwide fame with an accuracy of technique and expression which is impossible to distinguish from the work of the living performer. The pianos in which the Cello Reproducing Medium is installed are the A. B. Chase, the Emerson, and the Lindeman & Sons. The Cello Reproducing Medium is operated by an elec. trip motor making foot pumping unnecessary. It can also be used as a player piano, using the regular eighty-eight note player rolIs. It is embodied in both upright and grand pianos.

CHRISTIE & CO. Named for Jacob Christie, formerly of B. Bogart & Co., succeeded by the Bogart Piano Co., and made by that industry with the factory at 185th St. and Willow Ave New York, Pianos of good quality by a reliable firm.

CHURCHILL well-made pianos, player-pianos and grand pianos bear this name. They are the products of the Hartford Piano Co., of Chicago, and they have a very large sale because of their beauty and moderate prices.

CLARENDON Grand pianos, reproducing pianos, player pianos and upright pianos bearing this now distinguished name, are recognized as among the thoroughly representative types of artistic American instruments. In tone, both as to power and the delicate gradations of expression, these pianos are recognized among pianists as models and their development has been made possible by skill and the uniformity of methods which belong to well-equipped industries of the modern kind. There is a quality in the Clarendon that at once asserts itself and without which no instrument can achieve success of the larger kind. The depth and breadth of the tonal values of the graceful, and now famous, Clarendon grands are quickly recognized. The Clarendon player. Piano is peculiarly strong in its musical and material attainments. It is equipped with an improved pneumatic action of peculiar sensitiveness, and it presents special points of excellence which are appreciated by the most critical. The Clarendon reproducing grands and uprights are representative of the latest forward step in the art of making the piano the most playable and most enjoyable musical instrument for the home. The degree of perfection in expression attained never fails to enthuse the music lover.

CONCORD Pianos and player-pianos of dependability and attractive qualities which bear this name were manufactured in Chicago for many years, until the industry of Mr. Geo. P. Bent was secured by a large corporation with the factory in Louisville. The Geo. P.Bent Company operates a large plant and produces other piano brands.

FRANCIS CONNOR Pianos and player-pianos of fine quality are manufactured by Mr. Francis Connor, whose factory is at 184th S. Cypress Ave., New York. Mr. Connor Is an expert In piano construction.

CONWAY Pianos bearing this well -known name first appeared in the winter of l905. In November 1925, the control of the Hallet & Davis Piano Co. of Boston, which had marketed the Conway instruments, was acquired by the Premier Grand Piano Corporation, and the Conway up right pianos and players are now produced in the factories of Jacob Doll & Sons, New' York. Conway Pianos are In every way beautiful and dependable by Jacob Doll & Sons.

CONOVER Est. 1885. This was a high grade of piano manufactured by J. Frank Conover who was considered by many one of the worlds great piano makers. Located in the heart of piano country, Mr. Frank Conover devoted more than forty years of his life to the study of a single problem - tone. The Conover scale design is still imitated by many factories. A Conover piano is worth rebuilding as an investment quality piano. Pianos of the highest type, first made in 1885 by Frank Conover, an expert of international distinction, were later manufactured by The Cable Company, of Chicago. In making the Conover piano The Cable Company kept constantly in view the highest requirements of the artistic piano and successfully strives to meet the growing demand for an instrument to fill the place created by the trend of modern times and recent musical developments. The Conover piano is distinctly a modern instrument whose fame is secure because of the unchallenged artistic merit that sustains it. It is a piano in which are embodied principles that have by experience been proven to be the foundation of superior tone quality, and it is made in accordance with the most advanced ideas of piano construction. It possesses all of the requirements demanded by the most exacting pianists and its use in the concert room is a feature of the musical world. It is a frequent remark among critics of the piano that the Conover scale represents the highest attainment in the art of tone production. It is a scale of absolute accuracy, by which the peculiarly even, sympathetic, yet powerful musical character of the Conover pianos is insured. With the Conover, as with only the highest types of pianos, it is possible to render the finest gradations of tone color and to attain a tone of perfect purity, sweetness and resonance. Of course, in a piano of this character the important matter of durability enters largely. The Conover is a piano of solid construction. The back and frame are of such strength that the enormous "pull" of the strings produces not the least "give." The pin block is built in layers of quarter sawn hard rock maple, the grain of each layer running transversely to that of its neighbor and these pianos' stand in tune for a remarkable period of time. In the important matter of the action the Conover is no less well equipped. Every one of the several thousand parts of the Conover piano action is made and adjusted with all the care which fulfills every requirement of merit of prompt response, agreeable "feeling" and elasticity. And in the construction of the Conover grand pianos there are also features of peculiar interest to scientific pianists. The grand rims are continuous and are made of separate layers of wood bent into permanent shape. These rims typify strength and, of course, conform to the shape of the grand plate. The Conover grand piano has received the enthusiastic indorsement of a large number of the famous pianists whose appearance in concert give added prominence to the piano upon which they prove their powers. The patented sounding board and frame construction in the small grand model is part of an improved construction designed to maintain the proper curvature of the sounding board, so necessary to preserve the original tonal beauty of the instrument. Instruments having this construction bear the trademark "Crownstay." In a recent publication devoted to descriptions of the various styles of Conover pianos there are portraits of some of the most renowned pianists and vocalists accompanied by words of commendation. A reading of these letters is alone a lesson in piano appreciation and must impress the reader with the character of the artistic Conover piano. Conover grand pianos are made in several sizes. The small Grand and parlor grand having attained great popularity among piano buyers of the higher class. The Conover Reproducing Grand unites the artistic Conover Grand with a perfected reproducing action that is exclusively Cable. This is a reproducing piano that is simple in construction, positive in action and trouble proof. Correctly Sized for the small home or apartment with the reproducing action completely concealed. The Conover Reproducing Grand is graceful and attractive in appearance and conforms to every detail with the high ideals The Cable Company has always maintained for the artistic Conover. In the upright the Conover Art Carola Inner-Player the Conover piano equipped with the famous Inner-Player action. The Conover Solo Carola Inner-Player is the Conover piano equipped with the celebrated Solo Carola Inner-Player action. The value of a Conover piano, or a Conover-Cable piano is equal to that of a Mason & Hamlin, Chickering, Knabe, and in most cases to that value of a Steinway.

CONOVER-CABLE Conover and Cable consolidated in 1890 to make pianos using all patents and designs of J. Frank Conover. The original cable piano not only had the best qualities that distinguished it as an instrument of high standing, but had superior qualities by construction and design to produce good results. Cable studio pianos were for many years the most acceptable piano in America for schools because they exceeded the specifications by every standard and were made to withstand the tremendous number of hours required by schools. The schools of this time period purchased all pianos, and they were not payoffs for endorsements, advertising or other commercial uses.

CLARITONE The name adopted by Adam Schaaf, Inc., for the perfectly reliable pianos and player-pianos made by that industry. All instruments from the industry named may be depended upon as reliable in every way.

CHUTE & BUTLER Company made pianos and players, formerly made at Peru, Indiana, is now manufactured by the Schiller Piano Company, Oregon, Illinois. The Chute & Butler instruments had won a good place when the Schiller Company purchased the scales, patterns and trade name and has been manufacturing the Chute& Butler piano and player- piano since September 1, 1920. The original scales of the Chute & Butler pianos have been continued and many changes and improvements have enabled the Schiller Company to hold original patrons and add man y new representatives to the list.

CLAVIOLA The name applied to admirable interior player pianos made by the Claviola Company, of New York, which industry is controlled by Kindler & Collins.

CONTINENTAL The Continental Piano Co. was originally incorporated in 1912, but the business name and good will was bought several years later by the Jesse French & Sons Piano Co. of New Castle, Ind., who have since made and marketed pleasing and durably constructed instruments under this name. They are instruments of attractive character and are guaranteed by an industry of unquestionable responsibility. The instruments make a strong appeal and have become favorites in piano showrooms and private homes.

CONRAD Conrad pianos and player-pianos were manufactured by the Kreiter Mfg. Co., at their plant in Marinette, Wis. The name Conrad stands for beauty in design, a sweet ness of tone and reliability. The factory is a model of efficiency and is equipped with the latest and best machinery with which to manufacture good instruments. The factory at Marietta, Wis. , is one of the finest and best equipped in the Northwest. The Conrad piano is a piano noted for its beautiful design and peculiar sweetness of tone. The Conrad pianos are made in several very attractive styles, including grands, upright and pneumatic player-pianos, all of attractive designs.

CREIGHTON Instruments of durable character bearing this name are produced by Walter S. Pierce Co San Francisco.

CROWN Pianos which became famous by this name were for many years manufactured by the industry controlled by Mr. Geo. P. Bent of Chicago. The Geo. P. Bent Co. is now owned by the Adler Mfg. Co., of Louisville, Ky., which industry is now producing the "Crown" piano.

COINOLA Electric pianos and orchestrions of this name are manufactured by the Operators Piano Co., Inc., of Chicago. Their instruments are coin controlled and they are thoroughly well made, musical and representative. For public places they are unsurpassed and they have won a foremost place among coin operated instruments. Factories at 715 N. Kedzie Ave., Chicago, Ill.

CUNNINGHAM An attractive and popular piano manufactured by the Cunningham Piano Co. whose factory was at forty ninth. Parkside Ave. and Viola St. and showrooms at 1101 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. The Cunningham piano is popular in its home city, Philadelphia, and throughout the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. A Cunningham piano is worthy of rebuilding as an investment

CURTIS The name of the popular pianos of the Jewett Piano Co. Leominster, Mass. Curtis pianos are guaranteed to he instruments of excellence. Tone quality and responsive action conforming to particular requirements are tests of a piano. Curtis pianos meet these tests. The scale is the result of more than sixty ears of study and experiment in progressive piano making. Curtis pianos are sold throughout New England by M. Steinert & Sons. Boston.

DAVENPORT TREACY These instruments, pianos, player- pianos and grand pianos and Reproducing pianos (licensed under the Welte-Mignon patents) have won recognition from both the trade and the public for the very high standard maintained in their manufacture. They contained only the best of materials, employed only the highest skilled labor, and are carefully and conscientiously constructed. The scale is remarkably even, and the instruments have a fine musical quality of tone. The cases are artistic and attractive in design.

DECKER & SON There is no more honorable or a distinguished name associated with pianos than that of Decker. And through all the year involving litigation and claims to priority and trade name rights, the house of Decker & Son has maintained a steady forward movement, conscious that in it rested all of the rights of initiative, excellence and fixedness of purpose. The Decker & Sons' piano had its beginning in 1856, when the late Myron A. Decker embarked with a partner, the instruments being known as the Decker& Barnes. Both members were thoroughly skilled and scientific piano experts. And the quality of the Decker pianos improved as they grew in artistic fame and recognition. The industry of Decker & Son is now controlled by Mr. Frank C. Decker, son of the founder, and his son-third generation Mr. Frank C, Decker, Jr. Both are skilled piano experts trained from early boyhood in the production of instruments of the highest grade. Upright, grands and reproducing pianos are manufactured, and the Decker & Son instruments maintain the place in the piano world to which their artistic characteristics have entitled them for more than sixty-six years.

DOLL & SONS All instruments bearing this name is manufactured in the factories of Jacob Doll & Sons, Inc. was one of the largest piano companies in America. The pianos and player- pianos were popular with a large class of music lovers and music dealers throughout the country. The player- pianos were of the same popular standard as the pianos, and the number of instruments annually produced was very large and constantly increasing. Uprights, grands, player pianos, electric expression and Reproducing pianos (Welte-Mignon, licensee) are manufactured and the instruments contain many valuable patents. This industry of Jacob Doll & Sons is one of the largest in New York and its confidence is proportionately great.

DE KALB A small grand piano and electric expression grand piano of excellent quality and construction and moderate price manufactured by the De Kaib Piano Co. of De Kaib, Ill.

DEITEMEIER Made by the Deitmeier Piano Co., San Francisco. Before the great fire of 1906 the industry was principally repair work. After the fire the business was resumed with manufacturing department on more extensive scale at 862 Valencia Street.

DELAWARE A new industry at Muncie, Md., has adopted its company name for that of it. Pianos and player pianos. Well-made instruments designed by experts.

DENNYSON Pianos and players of a reliable construction and an admirable tone which bear this name are manufactured by the Story & Clark Piano Co., of Chicago.

HENRY DETMER well-made pianos, player pianos and grands are made by Henry Detmer, whose factory is at Claremont Ave, and LeMoyne St., Chicago. A small industry of long standing and good reputation.

DIMINUTIVE The descriptive name given to the small Stroliher upright by the Smith, Barnes & Strohber division of the Continental Piano Co. This is a remarkable little instrument, is 3 ft. 71in. high. See Strohber.

DRACHMANN Well made, attractive player-pianos which have five large sale to discriminating music lovers. They are manufactured by the H. C. Bay Company.

DUERK Baby Grand pianos of admirable character are the product of the Duerk Grand Piano Corporation,

DUO ART PIANOLA This piano was well known. This instrument was actuated by Duo Art music rolls

ELECTROVA Automatic-electrical (coin-operated) instruments, made by the Electrova Company, This house is controlled by Jacob Doll & Sons.

ELECTRATONE This is the registered name of an electric coin operated player pianos manufactured by the Waltham Piano Co. of Milwaukee, Wis. They are high grade instruments made in three new designs and possess peculiar features including a combination harp or banjo with piano effect which is finding an ever increasing market.

ELLINGTON Ellington reproducing pianos, grand pianos, uprights and player pianos are made by the Ellington Piano Co., Cincinnati. It has been subjected to the most severe tests of all clematis and it has endured the most rigorous use. All in all, it is considered among the best values on the market. The Ellington Manualo (the player) a piano with the human touch is a triumph of tone and technique combined, and shares fully in the established reputation of the Ellington piano proper. Output controlled by the Baldwin Piano Co.

ELLSWORTH Pianos of popular characteristics bearing this name are from the factory of Armstrong Piano Co., East Rochester, N. Y. is of reliable quality and fully guaranteed.

EMERSON Emerson pianos have been manufactured since 1849 and are known everywhere by the descriptive phrase, "The sweet-toned Emerson." Upright, grand, and player pianos were manufactured.

ENGELHARDT The Engelhardt Piano Company of St. Johnsville, N. Y., makes a specialty of the production of automatic instruments embracing orchestrions, banjo-orchestras, player-pianos and reproducing player pianos, bell pianos, flute pianos, xylophone pianos, coin operated pianos, reproducing player pianos, orchestrions, banjo orchestras and midget orchestrions.

EUTERP Good and durable popular grade instruments from the large factory of Jacob Bros., New York.

EUPHONA The famous Euphona Inner-Player piano is made by The Cable Company of Chicago in two styles, PW and PR, Equipped with manually a controlled transposing device; key lock; pedal door openers; pneumatic controls of expression by means of depress able buttons, and tracker board control of piano sustaining dampers. It also has a full tempo scale, zero to 130", roll, and a novel feature termed "Silent High Speed," all controlled by a single controlling lever. All controlling devices are concealed by Cable Sliding Wrist-Rest and Lever Cover. Has non-leaking, a noncorroding tracker bar, high speed roll, six-unit motors, patented compensating governor and the Inner-Player Miniature Keyboard. The whole device is simple in construction and presents the maximum of reliability. The cases aft handsomely veneered and well finished, of plain line design, all of which, coupled with the mechanical advantages enumerated above, account for the immense popularity of this instrument. The Style PW differs from the PR in the size of case, the former being 4 ft, 4 in. high and the latter 4 ft. 6 in. high. The Euphona Reproducing Inner-Player piano (which see) is the Euphona Inner-Player, electrically equipped. The Euphona Inner-Player, pianos have been made by The Cable Company since 1907.

EPWORTH PIANO Epworth pianos have long been known among musical people for their characteristic sweetness of tone and all around musical excellence. The workmanship, both inside and out, are exceptionally high-class and the Epworth represents an intelligent, conscientious, painstaking effort as applied to the production of a sweet toned, reliable instrument. Epworth pianos are made by the Williams Piano & Organ Co. of Chicago

ESTEY Estey grands, period grands, reproducing grands, pianos and player pianos are manufactured by The Estey Piano Company, an old established and distinguished house of high standing throughout the trade. These instruments are well and favorably known in practically every corner of the earth, Estey being one of the best-known musical names in the world. The pianos represent the highest grade of construction throughout, and have been endorsed by numerous prominent musicians for their wonderful tone quality.

EUPHONA REPRODUCING INNER PLAYER The Cable Company, one of the world's largest manufacturers of pianos and player)pianos, began experimental work on reproducing pianos in 1909. During the seven years that followed their factories produced and severely tested a number of excellent models, but it was not until 1916 that their scientific experts were satisfied. Then, and not until then, was the Euphona reproducing-Inner Player placed upon the market, for it was the policy of this great house never to experiment upon the public. The Euphona Reproducing Inner Player can be played in five different ways one. It may be used as a regular piano; 2. As a regular foot created player-piano; 3. As a foot-operated player-piano with motor assistance; 4. As a motor-operated player piano with manual control of wind-pressures for expression purposes; and five. As a thoroughly efficient and entirely automatic reproducing piano. The Reproducing Inner Player is equipped with the famous Cable Inner Player parts, which were awarded the Gold Medal at the Panama Pacific International Exposition. The Miniature Keyboard, Triplex Pedal Device, Wrist Rest and a score more patented features are inventions to be found in no other players than those of Cable manufacture. Musicians have highly praised the easy action, full mellow tone and evenly balanced scale of the piano element.

EVERETT At one time one of the most active high grade piano on the list. A piano of distinctive qualities which the enthusiastic acclaim of many of the foreign, artists of the world and promised to make the Everett one of the foremost. Controlled by the John Church Co., of Cincinnati.

FABER Piano and player-piano of good quality and reliable construction which have won a popular place in the trade and in the musical world. Made by Faber Piano Co.

FARRAND PIANO CO. These pianos and player- pianos are the products of the Farrand Piano Co. of Holland. Michigan, and they hold a high position for their recognized musical quality, merit and durability of construction, insuring the life of the even singing tone for which they are noted. These famous instruments are recognized for being one of the highest grades and possessing the finest tonal qualities. The manufacturers of the Farrand piano and Farrand Cecilian Licensee Player-Piano are considered among the country's experts in their line and backed by ample resources have been able to produce and maintain a degree of quality that offers the fullest measure of value to the buyer. The name of "Farrand" has been distinguished in the world of musical instrument manufacturers for a half century and the Farrand Piano and Farrand Cecilian Player-Piano is worthy of the favor which the name suggests to piano buyers. With the Farrand Grand which has most beautiful tones. Redundant in power and of exquisite timber, and with the Farrand Reproducing Grands and uprights, the company has a complete line of splendid instruments

J & C FISCHER Est. 1840, The old New York house of J. & C. Fischer was in existence since 1840 and was located at East Rochester, N.Y. The original factory of J & C Fischer was established in 1840. It being the outgrowth of previous association with other firms engaged in the manufacture of pianos. It is one of the oldest firms having had its inception in New York City, and during its long and honorable career has played a considerable part in the musical development of our country. One of the oldest and most reputable pianos manufactured in the United States and a pioneer in the American Piano Industry. In 1896 the Fischer house celebrated the manufacture of their one hundred thousandth piano. The Fischer is a high grade, standard piano with a fine, pure quality of tone, and notable for the beauty of its case designs as well as artistic musical excellence. J & C Fischer manufactured both grands and uprights, available with the Ampico Player.

The J&C Fischer was later made by the Aeolian - American Corp. The J & C Fischer pianos in small grands, consoles and school pianos of professional pianos are celebrated for their fine, pure quality tone, and further distinguished for the beauty of its case designs. Special attention was given to this important feature of artistic piano making that even the regular models of this line are noteworthy for their simplicity and grace, and their period models are superb examples of the adaption of the decorative art of past centuries to the case of a modern piano. A pre-owned J & C Fischer makes an excellent investment.

FARNY Instruments of good quality, manufactured by the Farny Piano Co., an industry owned by the Rudolph Wurlitzer Co., of Cincinnati, 0H. Factory is at North Tonawanda, N.Y.

FLOREY BROS. The admirable grand pianos and reproducing pianos manufactured by this old industry are notable in several respects. The Florey Bros. make grands exclusively and devote all of their experience, skill and energies to sustaining a reputation won by years of consistent determination to excel. It is claimed, and presumably not disputed, that Florey Bros. were the first to seriously consider the establishing of an exclusive grand piano industry. They began the experiment in 1909 and have developed a substantial and constantly growing business with a fine class of trade. Florey Bros. grands are beautiful instruments of distinctly artistic tone quality and in every way desirable in the esteem of competent critics. They are sold by houses of the highest responsibility and they deserve the success they have won. Florey Bros. is a corporation the officers of which are practical piano builders.

FOSTER & CO. Foster & Co. manufacture a complete line of pianos and player pianos. This line of instruments is very widely known, and is representative of the best instruments of their grade. Reliably made of excellent materials in very modern factories at East Rochester, N. Y. The Foster pianos during recent years achieved great prominence through the exploitation of the same by some of the most representative piano houses throughout the country. The Foster piano and player-piano of today occupy as enviable standing for quality in respect to tone and construction.

FRANKLIN Manufacture of this excellent line of upright and grand pianos began in New York City in 1881. The Franklin is an instrument that fulfills the exacting requirements of those music lovers who appreciate and demand a piano constructed in accordance with the highest ideals of musical craftsmanship and fittingly housed in a case whose design and finish are the acme of elegance. It is made by the Franklin Piano Co. That the Ampico is now offered the musical public in the favorite Franklin is sufficient recommendation of the quality of the Franklin instrument. A new line of designs has been recently placed on the market, and has been accorded the highest approval. The factory and office are located at East Rochester, N. Y

JESSE FRENCH Since 1875 the name Jesse French have stood for everything high grade in the music line. Many thousands of pianos' bearing the name Jesse French have been marketed in past years, but now these instruments bear the name of Jesse French & Sons. They are manufactured by the Jesse French & Sons Piano Co., New Castle. Ind. See this name for further particulars.

JESSE FRENCH & SONS This artistic piano is the finest product of the great factory of the Jesse French & Sons Piano Co. at New Castle. Ind. It is a strictly high grade artistic instrument, notable not only for its fine musical qualities but also for its remarkably beautiful case designs. These instruments have attained to a place of distinction in the world of music. Many great pianists and teachers having expressed for them their preference. A number of leading music schools also have signified their approval of the Jesse French & Sons' pianos by having them installed in their institutions. The Jesse French & Sons' grand pianos appeal equally to the artistic musicians and the owners of fine homes. One of the recent additions to the list is a parlor grand, which affords a fine example of great tone in small case, and it has won especial favor. This grand is also supplied with reproducing player actions. The uprights may be had with electric expression actions both with and without foot pedals. The name of French is one so Long associated with pianos and music that it has literally become a household word. Within the last year much skill and expense have been invested in new scales, improved methods of construction and new designs. There has also been introduced a novel feature, known as the Dulcet Tone, which opens a wide field of possibilities In tone coloring and shading. The Dulcet Tone brings into operation an especially arranged set of dampers and mutes in such manner as to give sweet one string effects of peculiarly sympathetic quality. Mr. Jesse French, the president of the company, started in the music business in 1872, branching out into the piano business in 1875, and has been continuously connected with the industry ever since. Mr. French was the founder of one and intimately associated with others of the best, known and most successful factories and distributing companies in the United States. It has always been the aim of the company to make the Jesse French & Sons instruments the very best that they could produce, regardless of expense. The Jesse French & Sons' piano is an artistic production, the culmination of years of experience in the music trade. They are made in grands, uprights, foot-power and electric players and reproducing pianos in great varieties of size and styles, and in all of the fancy woods. Every part of the instrument, with the exception of the hardware, is produced in the mammoth factory in New Castle. Ind., erected especially for the purpose and equipped with the idea of securing the best possible results in every department in any way connected with the production of Jesse French & Sons pianos. For in them the question of quality is paramount and the desire to excel a very potent force, two expressive mottos being well known in this connection, viz.: "Quality First and First Quality" and "A Name well-known Since 1875."

FUEHR & STEMMER In every way the Fuehr & Stemmer instruments may be recommended with perfect confidence. The Fuehr & Stemmer factory, at 1932 Wentworth avenue. Chicago, is equipped for the manufacture of high grade pianos and conducted under the personal supervision of piano experts in every department of construction. It may be safely said that the Fuehr & Stemmer grand piano is in every way worthy of the reputation of the manufacturers and the fame of their instruments. It is powerful in total without the strident characteristics which prove a blemish to some instruments. In every way this grand may be commended, and the name of Fuehr & Stemmer on an instrument is an assurance of merit and responsibility.

GABLER This is a name which has been familiar in the piano world since the year 1854 when the Gabler piano was established. The founders of the industry are represented by Mr. Emil E.Gabier, son of the first manufacturer of pianos bearing the name. Mr. Gabler maintains his interest, and has pride in what the name stands for in the piano world. He is himself a thoroughly trained expert in the building of the instrument, and he keeps in contact with the factory and the progress of the instruments which bear his name. Gabler pianos and player pianos have been highly commended through the years. Gabler Electric Expression and Reproducing instruments are notable additions to this time honored line. Eighteen new models, including two new grands, greatly enlarged manufacturing facilities and especially effective advertising and selling cooperation, make this an ideal line for progressive merchants.

GERMAIN well-made instruments produced by the Germain Piano Co., Saginaw, Mich.

GIBBONS & STONE, INC. Gibbons & Stone, Inc., manufacture the Gibbons & Stone pianos for their retail trade. Strictly high grade instruments, which include uprights, also pIayer- pianos.

GILMORE Reliable instruments of excellent musical quality, made by the Straube Piano Co., of Chicago.

GOLDSMITH Pianos, player-pianos and reproducing pianos of powerful and pleasing tone and great durability of construction bears this name, which is that of the president of the Goldsmith Piano Co., makers of the instruments. All Goldsmith instruments are made under expert supervision by skilled artisans and the name has become known wherever music is a delight. Very beautiful case designs mark the Goldsmith products and thus sustain the favor of the instruments which is created by the satisfying tone quality. Purchasers of Goldsmith instruments are guaranteed the best results and receive large returns for their investments, and the methods of the manufacturers are of a kind to the uniformly commended.

GORDON The Gordon Piano Co. was established in 1845 by S. T. Gordon, and continued by his son, Hamilton S. Gordosa, until bought by the present company, by which the quality of the instruments is being sustained and even improved. Both pianos and player-pianos are superior in construction and tone. They are instruments of the kind that meet the approval of the majority of the piano buying public and they have verified their place in the world of music by their careful construction, fine appearance and tonal results.

EDMUND GRAM The Edmund Gram pianos, Grand. Upright and Player pianos are well made by an ambitious house in Milwaukee. Mr. Gram has been in the retail piano trade for a great many years and the instruments which bear his name are well made, handsome in case designs and of artistic tone quality.

GRENELL BROS. Manufactured by the well-known music house of the same name. Detroit, Mich.

GULBRANSEN A name familiar to the musical world in connection with the player-piano industry. The Gulbransen Registering Piano is unquestionably one of the best-known instruments of its class in the world. Its trademark, the Easy-at-the-Pedals, and slogan, "Easy to Play," have been impressed upon the memory of millions of people through national advertising, and the claim is made that the Guibransen Registering Piano itself is more widely distributed than any other. The great favor with which the Gulbransen instruments are regarded by music loving people of discriminating judgment is the best possible proof of their merits. And the large number of responsible piano merchants who represent the Gulbransen instruments leaves no question as to their desirability in every particular. In the field of player-pianos the name of Gulbransen is especially familiar because of the part Mr. A. G. Gulbransen has taken in the inventive and creative phases of the instrument. In tone realization there is no one to dispute the character of the Gulbransen pianos and registering pianos.

HACKLEY The "Hackley" piano is made by the Chase-Hackley Piano Co. of Muskegon, Mich. It is a thoroughly reliable instrument, the product of an honorable house, and holds a high position in the musical world. The "Hackley" piano is named after the late president of the Chase-Hackley Piano Co., which well-known concern manufactures the piano in its perfectly equipped factory in Muskegon, Mich.

HADDORFF The career of the Haddorff pianos is by many in the art world regarded as phenomenal. These famous instruments encompass every form and attainment, including the Artistic Grands, Reproducing Pianos, Grand Reproducing Players, Player-pianos and uprights every phase of high grade piano manufacture, and the name of Haddorif is always the symbol of musical attainment. The attainment of power in a piano's name is a matter of such complexity of elements that to describe the way to that result in words is almost impossible. Haddorff pianos have so long stood as representatives of fine achievement in pianos that to refer to the evenness of tone, the responsiveness of action, and the charm of expression possible to the performer, would be to repeat that with which the piano world is already familiar. Haddorff pianos are recognized as models of piano artistry. They are instruments whose workings out have been, as is always the case with ambitious instruments, gradual and progressive through the years. The Haddorff scale is so finely shaded, and its tonal results so graduated, that there is no ear so acute as to detect where the dividing lines occur. And that is one of the triumphs of the scale draftsman work. It is the work of a master acoustician whose entire life has been devoted to piano development and the finest attainment of inborn skill and experience has found a culmination in the instruments that bear his name. Mr. C. A. Haddorff designed and created the first Haddorff piano.

The Haddorff sounding board is scientifically constructed with a view to obtaining the greatest resonance without in the least interfering with the clarity of tone and quality of tone power. Haddorff pianos are the results of the best material so carefully treated and adjusted and so finely finished in external and internal details that there is only reason for approval by the most critical. And this applies also to durability, giving to these instruments everything that the discriminating piano lover must demand, and insuring for the instrument itself the progressive career to which it was originally dedicated. The Haddorff player- piano is in every way the same creation as the Haddorff piano, equipped with the pneumatic action by which the utmost refinement of expression is easily possible. All of the effects possible to human interpretation are attainable with an accuracy absolutely dependable. The Haddorff Reproducing Piano is electrically controlled and is representative of the latest advance in this marvelous instrument by which the performances of the greatest pianist may be reproduced with fidelity to the most delicate tonal results of accent, tonal control and technique. Haddorif pianos have attained' an immovable place in the world of art, and they are everywhere recognized for the influence they exert in musical life and in the business attainments of their representatives.

HAINES BROS. Since its establishment, the Haines Bros. piano has been one of the leading high grade and artistic pianos. It remained, however, for the present day piano to attain its greatest eminence. The name of Haines Bros. has been of powerful influence in the trade and commands a higher regard today than at any previous time in its history. The present line of Haines Bros. pianos, both grands and uprights, and player-pianos embody everything that is required in the way of quality. The Haines Bros, piano has become known as the official college piano by reason of there being, in all probability, more Haines Bros. pianos in actual use in the most representative conservatories and Institutions of musical learning in this country than any other piano. All of these pianos were selected and purchased by these institutions after severe and critical tests. The Haines Bros. piano has been for many years a favorite with many of the world's most famous artists. The list of artists runs into the hundreds and would tabulate here like a musical directory, but space prohibits its insertion. Two interesting and important books have been published in the interest of the Haines Bros. Piano, "The Artist's Choice," containing a portrait" of famous artists with their testimonials, and "Golden Opinions" with hundreds of letters from colleges, conservatories, and other institutions of learning.

W. P. HAINES & CO. This widely known piano was established by Mr. W. P. Haines of the distinguished family of New York piano manufacturers. It is an instrument of unchallenged quality and it is manufactured under conditions well designed to continue in the esteem of the critical piano buying public. Associated with the manufacturers of the WP Haines & Co. piano is Mr. T. Lloyd Jones, a grandson of the original creator of pianos bearing the name of Haines. All of the members of W. P. Haines & Co. are experienced piano experts, and their ambition to produce instruments of distinction and character has long been recognized and realized. The player-piano bearing the same name is no less commendable for its fine qualities. It is the special wish and aim of the makers of these instruments that they are never confused with any others bearing similar names. A large new addition to the factory was made in the summer of 1917 and the manufacturing Capacity thereby greatly increased, proportionately to the rapidly growing demand.

HALLET & DAVIS Among the oldest American pianos and one whose career has reflected credit upon the American art industries. Established in 1839, the fame of the Hallet & Davis has continued to expand and today it is everywhere regarded as the high grade product of one of America's most ambitious piano industries Hallet & Davis pianos and player-pianos contain all modern improvements and are used by many eminent pianists and have won the indorsement of almost countless critics and experts. Hallet & Davis pianos are made in grand and upright styles, the grands having been chosen by many artists for their public performances. Whatever the style and form, these pianos are strictly high grade instruments. In November 1925, the Hallet & Davis Piano Co. was acquired by the Premier Grand Corporation of New York, which continues the manufacture of the famous grand piano which so long came from Boston. The uprights are now produced in the large factories of Jacob Doll & Sons in New York.

HAMILTON Manufactured by the Hamilton Piano Co., Chicago, Ill. The Hamilton Piano Co.'s extensive factories are located at Chicago I eights, Ill. The products of the factories are very large and form an important part of the output controlled by the Baldwin Piano Co. Hamilton pianos, comprising upright, grand and reproducing pianos. (The Hamilton Manualo is a player-piano of extraordinary merit. It combines the qualities of the Hamilton pianos with a scientifically constructed player mechanism. It is absolutely sure to give lasting satisfaction. Refer to the Baldwin Piano Co. and Hamilton Piano Co.

HARDMAN Made by Hardman. Peck & Co., one of the distinguished American piano industries, with a world wide reputation for the utmost reliability. Hardman pianos are note for their technical qualities, for their purity, delicacy, the artistic beauty of their cases, and for their remarkable durability. The Period designs are handsome and accurate. They have been made for more than eighty-three years. The Hardman five foot grand is the most popular of the Hardman pianos because of its convenient size and reasonable price. The Hardman has been the official piano of the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York for the past fourteen years and a letter from the management to the makers of the piano states that the eighteen Hardman pianos in constant use in the opera house are noted for their fine quality, fullness and great durability give them high satisfaction in spite of the fact that they are subjected to extremely heavy usage, due to the almost ceaseless rehearsals that are conducted here.".

HAMMOND The Hammond piano, and player-pianos manufactured by the Straube Piano Company, are instruments of high quality: they please the most discriminating musical taste. The Straube Piano Company recognizes the fact that pianos and player-pianos can be no better than the material and workmanship which go into them, and has built up its reputation on a solid foundation of satisfied customers. The Hammond slogan: "Built by those who know pianos." Those who know," is a literal statement of fact. Countless satisfied owners are the result of years of dependable manufacturing.

HAMPTON instruments of beautiful tone and reliable construction which are from the factory of the Story & Clark Piano Co.

HARP-O-GRAND A remarkably effective automatic piano which is a favorite for places of entertainment. Manufactured by the Nelson-Wiggen Piano Co., of Chicago.

HARRINGTON Manufactured in the Harrington Department of Hardman, Peck & Co., New York. A moderately priced instrument of superior qualities. Its beautiful tone is satisfying to the critical musician: its sympathetic touch fairly invites the fingers by its delightful responsiveness. And these vital qualities are perpetuated by a durability which results from the use of the best material manipulated by expert workmanship. Special attention has been given to Harrington case designs. The wide variety of styles and the several different woods employed in the Harrington pianos renders it a simple matter to satisfy any taste and to choose a piano in harmony with any proposed environment. The Harrington Midget, with the same qualities as are in the larger pianos, has a marvelous tone for so small a piano.

HARTFORD The name of handsome and dependable uprights, grand, and player pianos manufactured by the Hartford Piano Co., of Chicago. The Hartfords are medium priced instruments in which there is large value for moderate investment. Perfectly reliable and safe instruments to buy and the guaranteed products of an industry of the utmost reliability.

HARVARD Reliable pianos and player-pianos of great attractiveness are manufactured by the Harvard Piano Co. Dayton, Ky. They are recognized for being among the most popular and salable instruments on the market. They possess distinct individuality and musical merit and are in every respect thoroughly well made and strictly reliable instruments. The Harvard is owned exclusively by the John Church Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio.

HAZELTON BROTHERS One ox America's oldest and most famous pianos, established in 1849, thus being one of the pioneers' piano industries of reliability and distinction. It is a well-known fact that pianos originally built by this house are still in good condition musically. They make a full line, including player pianos and grands and also install the renowned Welte-Mignon, under Welte-Mignon patents in both uprights and grands. Hazelton grands are famous throughout large clienteles of musical critics.

HENSEL Pianos bearing this name are from the factory of Hardman, Peck &Company which guarantees their reliability. The name is a registered trademark belonging to Hardman. Peck & Co. These instruments are also made in upright Reproducing pianos, using the Welte-Mignon actions.

HENKELMAN George Henkelman, Jr., president of the Henkelman Piano Mfg. Co., of New York, organized the company in June 1922, to make popular pianos and player pianos. Factory, 7097 East 140th St. New York. The Henkelnian instruments are of the kind music lover's buy, because they are handsome in design, beautifully finished and of the sweet quality of tone most admired. Mr. Henkelman being himself an expert piano maker, understands the demand and supplies it. Henkelman pianos are durable in every respect and they have made good progress, with trade and public.

HERBERT The Herbert piano contains the latest and most modern improvements, as well as a number of special features of superior merit, enabling the performer to play the music of the masters with ease and effect. All Herbert pianos are fully warranted and are thoroughly reliable and safe pianos to buy.

C.. J. HEPPE & SON The C. J. Heppe & Son is the leading piano made by the Heppe Piano Co. The pianos made under the direction of the Heppe Piano Co. are produced by two factories in uptown Philadelphia. The Heppe Piano Co.'s product differs from all other pianos because that they have three sounding boards instead of one, an invention which was patented in 1902 in the United States and foreign countries.

HINZE By Kimball, Chicago, Illinois - French Lick, Indiana.  This popularly known piano and also player- pianos are manufactured in Chicago, are thoroughly reliable and bear the guaranty of the manufacturer. Charter for the manufacture controlled by W. W. Kimball.

HOLMES & SON Pianos and player pianos were made in their modern and completely equipped factory at East Rochester, N.Y. These instruments had an excellent reputation for their quality of tone and durability. Their players' mechanisms were installed with great accuracy and operate with an ease which had been warmly praised.

HOLLAND This name is that of high grade pianos and player pianos made by the Holland Piano Mfg. Co., of Minneapolis. Minn., and Menomonie, Wis. Holland pianos and player-pianos are admirably refined and musical: their case designs are handsome, and the material and construction are durable and reliable. These instruments may be recommended. That they are instruments of the kind that win prompt approval is seen in the fact that they are today in demand with a class of piano buyers who have the ability to discriminate and who would not entertain the thought of any other than representative instruments. The Holland factory is under the management of Mr. James E. Sleeper, a well-known expert.

HOFFMAN A good piano of moderate price, made by Smith, Barnes & Strohber Co., in their large factory at North Milwaukee, WI. The Hoffmann piano has been on the market for many years and has proved to be of durable construction and in every way reliable. The tone is of the quality that attracts a great many people and the case designs are at once beautiful and original in decorative details. The manufacturers are among the largest in the American piano industry, with factories in Chicago and Milwaukee, and the house is of unquestioned financial standing.

HOMER Pianos and player-pianos of dependable construction and attractive musical qualities bearing this famous name ire the products of Strich & Zeidler of New York.

HORNUNG A well-established piano, made by C. C. Hornung Inc. These pianos were first made in San Francisco in 1872. and have always been sold as a high grade instrument. Mr. Homung uses nothing but the best of materials, actions and keys. He obtained highest award and gold medal at Midwinter fair in 1894.

HOWARD by Baldwin. Pianos bearing this name are the product of The Howard Piano Co. of Cincinnati. The "Howard" is a well-made instrument of absolute reliability and durability, backed by one of the strongest and greatest houses in the trade. The Howard player-pianos are distinguished by mechanical thoroughness, together with the application of scientific principles. The Howard school piano is a universal favorite with public schools and the musically informed. The Howard small grand piano is an instrument very highly regarded by music lovers The Howard coin operated piano is strict to give satisfaction and is a universal favorite.

HUNTINGTON Pianos and player pianos, also electrically and manually operated. Manufactured by the Huntington Piano Company at its factory in Shelton, Conn. The Huntington Piano Co., incorporated in 1894, is a substantial industry, the product of which holds a good place with the piano buying public. The Huntington pianos and player pianos are of the durable kind that withstand the wear of years and present a beautiful appearance, their case designs being graceful and their construction good throughout. The name of Huntington is one in which the piano merchants find an influence that creates business, and their customers realize full value for their investment in the instrument of music.

INNER-PLAYER This name is used exclusively by The Cable Company to designate, their player mechanism. To the words "Inner-Player" The Cable Company adds the word "Carola" when the mechanism is built into the Carola Inner-Player line has added the word "Euphona" when the mechanism is built into the Euphona Inner-Player line. This player-action represents the latest development in the player-piano field. Its many exclusive features are made and patented by The Cable Company, Chicago,

IRVING Reliable pianos and player-pianos manufactured by the M. Schulz. Co. Chicago. Irving pianos are well made, possessing durable qualities, and give the best of satisfaction wherever used. The makers are one of the wealthiest and most enterprising corporations with a reputation second to none. Financial standing is unquestioned. Refer also to M. Schulz Co.,

IRVINGTON This piano and also player-piano belongs to the famous line of instruments manufactured by the Story & Clark Piano Co. of Chicago. The factory was at Grand Haven, Mich. Reliable and beautiful instruments.

IVERS & POND A piano long established and extensively advertised. Ivers & Pond pianos have gained a prominent position before the public and they are in every respect meritorious instruments, as are the player pianos of the same make.

JACOB BROTHERS Manufactured by the Jacob Bros. Co., In the large piano manufacturing plant New York City. The Jacob Bros. Co. is one of the most progressive and Successful concerns in the piano industry. They have several retail stores in the city of New York and in other important cities of the east. Their wholesale trade is very large and substantial. Jacob Brothers pianos and player-pianos are durable instruments, their finish being exceptionally fine and the tone quality satisfying. They received an award at the World Columbian Exposition, in 1893, and have been the recipients of many encomiums from the music trade and public. Jacob Brothers have large financial interests in other noted makes of pianos, and also a controlling interest in one of the finest equipped piano case factories in this country; they have recently acquired an action factory of old established reputation, and altogether have taken a prominent position in the piano industry.

JAMES & HOLMSTROM An old, honorable and valued name in the American piano industry. The James & Holmstrom instruments have long been noted for their excellence of material, durability and tine tone qualities, one valuable feature in the construction of these pianos being the transposing keyboard. The small grands that bear this name have attracted widespread attention among critics in the musical worth by reason of their unusual excellence. The James & Holmstrom factory comprises commodious quarters at Alexander Ave. and l33rd St., New York, devoted exclusively to the manufacture of these fine instruments. The reproducing and player-pianos of this make are equally admirable in every particular.

JANSSEN One of the conservative, reputable piano manufacturing companies in New York, owned exclusively by Janssen Piano Co., Inc. Manufactures uprights, miniature grands, player pianos and player grands, also reproducing and expression player pianos.

JEFFERSON These attractive and sweet toned pianos are the products of The Jesse French & Sons Piano Co., of New Castle, Indiana. They are met with favor with a class of music lovers who want reliable instruments for family or home use. The Jefferson piano is durable in construction, and it is fully sustained by the company's guarantee. In September 1919 Mr. Johnson organized the Henry G. Johnson Piano Mfg. Co., secured the factory at Bellevue, Iowa, which has been in operation for very many years, and commenced the manufacture of Henry G. Johnson player-pianos exclusively. The Henry G. Johnson instruments have won success by their sterling merits. They are more and more in demand as the trade and public become familiar with their desirable qualities, and the fact that the factory has been enlarged by an addition 400 feet long by 80 feet wide speaks in positive terms of the progress which has been made, and this condition augurs well for the future.

JEWETT Jewett pianos have been made in New England continuously for more than sixty years and sold throughout the United States and abroad. Used and endorsed by famous musicians, Jewett pianos are famed for their thoroughness of construction, fullness of tone and exceptional ability for standing in tune under changing conditions. Factory, Leominster, Mass.

E. P. JOHNSON The name of the president of the E. P. Johnson Piano Co., of Elgin and Ottawa, Ill. Mr. Johnson is a thoroughly skilled and experienced piano maker, having designed and built some of the famous instruments besides those of its own industry, which is one of the most flourishing. The E. P. Johnson pianos and player-pianos are in every way distinguished by quality and up to date characteristics. E. P. Johnson pianos are dependable in every respect, and they are favorites with many of the foremost dealers.

EDOUARD JULES One of the three pianos made by the Heppe Piano Co., of Philadelphia and New York. This piano is equipped with Three Sounding Boards (patented) instead of the usual one. And is on sale by C. J. Heppe & Son, Philadelphia. (Established 1865.)

KAISER A small industry was established in 1891 and is making a few very good instruments for the retail trade of their makers. Office, 3301 Beach St., Chicago.

KELLMER PIANO CO. Conservative concern in good standing making small numbers of pianos for retail trade, exclusively, at Hazleton, Pa. established in 1883.

KELSO & CO. Commercial pianos and player pianos made at No. 18 Horatio St., New York.

KENMORE A medium grade piano manufactured by the P. A. Starck Piano Co. of Chicago. Good piano at a reasonable price, and the product of an industry so responsible that its purchaser is absolutely secure.

KIMBALL The unlimited enterprise and commercial strength of the W. W. Kimball Co., Chicago, manufacturers of the "Kimball" piano have pushed forward the fame and triumphs of the instrument. The "Kimball" has received endorsements from both the public and the professional, on the artistic elements of the piano world and that to an extent that has been rarely equaled. The Kimball received the highest awards Yukon-Pacific Exposition, Seattle, 1902, and the Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, l910 and 1912. The Kimball is made under conditions which, to an almost absolute degree assure perfect adaptation and fitting together of its parts. The plant in which it is manufactured is one of the finest and best equipped in the world there being few which approach it in magnitude of production or in the perfection of its adaptation to the purpose for which it is designed. The manufacturers of the "Kimball" are men of long experience in the musical instrument industry. The Kimball concert grand has been used by and is the preference of and has been endorsed by a large number of artists many of whom while using it has scored their greatest public triumphs as concert soloists.

KELLER & SONS Pianos and player-pianos of admirable character which were founded in l902 by the late Henry Keller. In the summer of 1916 the industry was purchased by Wilfred Piano Co. and the already excellent quality of the pianos and player-pianos have been fully sustained.

KINDLER & COLLINS Pianos made by practical piano men in their factory. The pianos are reliable, musical and desirable. Player-pianos are equally attractive and a small grand has also been added to the Kindler & Collins line of popular instruments. The Kindler & Collins instruments are made in various case designs and always with a view to symmetry and beauty. They are sold by many of the foremost piano houses throughout the country and steadily gain in favor wherever introduced. A name of recognized standing, on the piano is the best possible assurance of character and reliability.

KINGSBURY The popular instruments bearing this name are the product of The Cable Co., of Chicago, one of the largest, as well as most progressive piano manufacturing industries of the world. The "Kingsbury" is an attractive instrument, backed by a house of great resources and of highest responsibility. The "Kingsbury" pianos possess unusual attractiveness in case design and finish, besides having excellent musical qualities. They are of the characteristically popular kind, in which general style and the grace of design are wedded to those even more important considerations of musical tone and durability of construction. There are many reasons why the New Scale Kingsbury piano is an unusual value. In the first place, the makers are piano men of long standing; in the second place, their large capital and resources, more than nine million dollars, means big buying power: means getting the best materials the market affords at the right price; and it has also meant the equipping of their two great factories with every facility for turning out the best work in the best way. Finally, the makers of the Kingsbury piano insist upon building all parts of their pianos, even to the actions, sounding boards and keyboards, in their own plant, where they supervise not only the workmanship, but the inspection of all raw materials. The guarantee of the manufacturers is backed by unquestioned financial responsibility.

KINGSTON Pianos and player-pianos bearing this name are made by The Rudolph Wurlitizer Co. The Kingston was a handsome and in every way a desirable instrument.

KIRSCHNER This is the name of one of the popular pianos and players from the industry of the Henry B. Johnson Piano Co., of Belleville, Iowa. Kirschner pianos are made in attractive case designs and of durable construction and pleasing tone quality. They are intended for the popular trade, and in that they have won recognition and a wide sale. The factories at Bellevue. Iowa, are extensive and perfectly equipped for speedy and accurate production.

WM. KNABE & CO. The distinguished and time-honored instruments which bear this celebrated name are manufactured by Wm. Knabe & Co., Inc., one of America's oldest industries. Knabe pianos have an artistic record dating back to the year 183, when the instrument was founded by the late Wm. Knabe, in Baltimore, Md. Mr. Knabe had been working in different factories before he established his own instrument, having arrived in this country in 1832. His earlier knowledge had been acquired in the famous factories of Germany. Re was a man of great mechanical ability and possessed of ideals which mark the man of genius. These ideals have been sustained and imbedded in the Knabe piano to this day through all of more than eighty two years since the first instrument bearing the name appeared in Baltimore. In the succession of practical workers in the factories of Wm. Knabe & Co. has been generations of experts, descendants of the original workmen and members of the Knabe family. These skilled men gained their training in the Knabe factory and it is not long since a census of the Knabe employees proved the interesting fact that more than one third of the men have been employed by Wm. Knabe & Co. for from fifteen to more than fifty years, an average for the entire force of eighteen and a half years. When Wm. Knabe died in 1864 his two sons, Ernst and Wm. Knabe, Jr., and his son-in-law, Chas. Seidel, came into practical control of the rapidly expanding industry. Branch houses were opened in several cities, including New York and Washington. At the death of Ernst Knabe, who had become one of the most popular and able piano manufacturers the industry has ever known and later of his brother, Wm. Knabe, Jr., the direction of the business fell to Chas. Keidel. Subsequently the house was incorporated with a capital of $l00, 000. and in 1908 it became a division of the American Piano Co. Today the house of Wm. Knabe & Sons is stronger more ambitious and progressive than ever before in its long history. It produces grand and upright pianos and player pianos. Both in manufacturing ability and commercial integrity the house stands unquestioned. The factories in Baltimore are among the biggest and best equipped in the world and the plant, including lumber yards, covers more than six acres and embraces 392,000 feet of floor space. The distinction of the Knabe pianos is worldwide. They combine a rare degree power and sweetness of tone, delicacy and a poetic singing character and a beauty of case design and finish not surpassed. Many of the world's great artists have used the Knabe pianos in their public concerts, and Knabe grands have taken part in the concert tours of a large proportion of the famed virtuoso. They have also been used in the concert halls throughout the United States and the public schools of New York City for many years. They are sold all over the United States by prominent piano houses as well as in foreign countries, there being many agencies throughout Europe and elsewhere.

On January 1,1912 Chas. Seidel Jr., the son of Chas. Seidel and grandson of Wm. Knabe 1. was elected to office of president of Wm. Knabe & Co. On Mr. Keidel Jr.'s, death in April 1913, Mr. Wm. B. Armstrong, a man of long experience and tried ability in connection with the piano industry, in its various departments was made president. Mr. R.K. Paynter who had long been manager of the Washington and New York branches of the house, was elected vice-president and general manager. In March 1922, Mr. Paynter was advanced to the presidency of this distinguished and time-honored institution. Mr. Paynter had been connected with the house since 1899. Factories, Baltimore, Md. The Knabe is obtainable with the Ampico.

CHARLES KOHLER Charles Kotiler pianos are made by Kohler & Campbell, Inc., of 601-615 West 50th St., New York. This organization has one of the largest outputs of pianos and player-pianos in the world. These Charles Kohler pianos, player-pianos, electric expression pianos, reproducing pianos and grands, are the products de luxe of the instruments manufactured by this institution. They represent the best skill and knowledge of the late Mr. Charles Kohler, who was recognized as one of the instruments is notable for tonal purity and tonal volume, handsome and artistic case designs, beautiful finish and easy, responsive actions. They are highly esteemed in every detail, being the exponents of splendid craftsmanship, skill and infinite care in production.

KOHLER & CAMPBELL Manufactured by Kohler & Campbell, Inc. New York City, one of the leading piano industries and possessing several large factories. Their progress had been remarkable, not only in the enormous output of pianos, but also in the constant improvement of their instruments, which were distinguished for their durability and excellent tone lasting quality, and in consequence they have won position in the front ranks of reliable makes of pianos. The latest additions to this popular line are baby grand pianos, electric expression players and reproducing pianos (licensed under Welte-Mignon patents). The Kohler & Campbell baby grand instrument is distinguished for its beautiful tone, extraordinary tonal volume and handsome appearance. This artistic instrument is one of the smallest grand pianos made. The Kohler & Campbell electric expression player may be played either by hand, by treadles with music rolls or by electric power. The Kohler & Campbell reproducing piano may be played by hand as a piano as a player-piano, using any Standard 88 note roll and as a reproducing piano. There are thousands of Welte-Mignon music records available for this remarkable instrument.

The Kohler & Campbell house is one of the most enterprising and progressive in the entire industry. Their pianos are of the kind that please the popular taste and there are more than 230,000 of these pianos now in use. These pianos are also exported in large numbers and are remarkable for the manner in which they withstand climatic and geographical extremes.

Kohler & Campbell was one of the largest piano companies in America at one time, producing as many as sixty different names at a time, many of which were stencils (private labels) during and after the great depression. Kohler & Campbell purchased many piano factories throughout the United States. Kohler & Campbell pianos were well built and make excellent entry level pianos in good condition. Many of their pianos were handcrafted in many respects. In later years as a result of being manufactured in the heartland of the American furniture industry where raw material's availability and craftsmanship were passed on from generation to generation. See also: Astor, Brambach, Davenport, Milton, Behning, J.C. Campbell, Hazleton, Stratford, Behr Brothers, Celeste,Charles Kohler, Tom Thumb, Francis Bacon, Francis , Classic, Kroger, and Waldorf

KOTH-BAYER On January1, 1915, Mr. Frederick Koth, an experienced piano maker entered into partnership with Mr.Harry Bayer, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. In 1923 Mr. Koth retired from the firm.

KRAKAUER BROS. The house was established in 1869. and the piano bearing this name is the product of a family of musicians as well as mechanics of skill in the art of piano building. The grand pianos manufactured by this estimable house are recognized in musical circles as instruments of superior merit. because of their artistic tone quality. The Krakauer grands have maintained a high place among the artistic American instruments. They are splendid specimens of piano design and in their tone quality and power they challenge admiration and meet the highest commendation of the most critical. The Krakauer reproducing pianos are types of the highest development. Krakauer player pianos are no less admirable. They enhance the latest improvements and have from the first been recognized as containing many novel and exclusive features.

KRANICH & BACH Among the special improvements claimed for the Kranich & Bach piano are the Violin plate (a full metal plate with slanting pin block); the patented spiral spring washer; folding music rack and fall board in the uprights; and the Isotonic pedal which eliminates the shifting action in the grand. The Kranich & Bach upright and grand pianos have been before the public for more than a half century and during that time have held the same position they now occupy. The Kranich & Bach player-piano containing a player action manufactured completely in the Kranich & Bach factory is in every way as admirable as the piano of the same makers. A popular Kranich & Bach instrument is the "Grandette," a standard grand piano only 4' 9" long.

KREITER Made by the Kreiter Manufacturing Co. Inc., in their new, modern and a well-equipped factory. with all the latest machinery for the interior of the piano, as well as the wood working parts, such as the cases, backs, etc., which are all made in their own factory, located at Marinette, Wisconsin. The Kreiter plant covers seven acres of land. Daily capacity, thirty pianos. The Kreiter pianos are made in grands, uprights and player-pianos. They are standard instruments of high-class design and are noted for admirable tone qualities, affording ample power and expressive effects. These instruments have easily won hosts of friends. The Kreiter player-pianos are equally desirable and very popular instruments. This company also makes the Waldemar piano, named after the son of the president of the Kreiter Manufacturing Co., and which has met with success and which presages a place of genuine popularity for the pianos from Wisconsin.

KURTZMANN Wherever good pianos are known, the Kurtzamann is a prime favorite. This celebrated instrument is available in the Reproducing Grand, with the famous Welte-Mignon (licensee) action. A magnificent concert grand, a charming parlor grand and a variety of baby grands. It is also made in uprights and upright players and the Kurtzmann line has recently been augmented by the development of a high grade four foot four vertical grand and vertical player grand. This firm is one of the country's oldest piano makers, having been established by Christian Kurtzmann in 1848. During the 77 years that have followed. the company has steadfastly adhered to the quality ideals of its founder and chosen to grow by adhesion to sound methods of production and merchandising. The Kurtzmann has won a distinct position as a musical instrument of high character. The goal has been to make each Kurtzmann a musical and artistic masterpiece. True craftsmanship is found in even the minutest details, and the Kurtzmann company has long been famed for its skill in the selection and matching of choice mahogany or walnut veneers. Special attention is given to the finishing of Kurtzmann instruments, ample time being taken to assure a finish that like the piano itself, will assure a lifetime of service. The tone quality of every Kurtzmann is developed along the most approved lines, so that t will appeal to critic and novice alike. Full laminated bridges, pin blocks, reinforced sounding boards, as well as overall metal plates are mechanical features of Kurtzmann practice that strongly appeal to those who are accustomed to appraising piano values and the Kurtzmann has become far famed as a piano that is much higher in values than it is in price. The Kurtzmann line is particularly well presented in the latest Kurtzmann art catalog, which will be promptly mailed upon request.

KRELL The Krell grand, upright and player-pianos are the famous and very popular products of the Werner Industries Company, successor to the Krell Piano Co. Cincinnati, Ohio. Krell pianos and player-pianos have been favorites in the musical world for a great many years. They are durable, handsome, and desirable instruments.

KROGER The grand and reproducing grand pianos, player pianos and upright pianos which bear this distinguished name are known wherever music is appreciated. The name of Kroeger is an old and honorable one in the piano trade. The makers of the Kroeger have been piano makers for more than sixty years, and the Kroeger industry is one in which musical America has taken pride. The factory at New York City.

LAGONDA PIANO CO. Widely known pianos and players are made and marketed by: the Jesse French & Sons Piano Co., New Castle, Ind., who are the proprietors and exclusive factors for the same. Lagonda pianos are fully warranted by the Jesse French & Sons Piano Co., which is adequate assurance of the merit of the instruments and the responsibility of their makers. The Lagonda pianos and players, both foot-power and electric, are made in a large variety of styles and sizes as well as all the fancy woods. They are handled by many of the most enterprising piano houses in this country as well as being exported to lands beyond the seas. They are attractive and thoroughly reliable instruments. The Lagonda player-piano enjoys a daily increasing demand which tells plainly of its merits and satisfaction giving qualities. The advertising phrases used in connection with these instruments tell the story: "Lagonda Pianos, Maximum Values": "Lagonda Pianos, thousands in use and the demand increasing."

LAKESIDE Well-made instruments manufactured by the Cable-Nelson Piano Co., of Chicago and South Haven, Mich. Lakeside pianos are produced with greatest care, according to the well-known standards of this progressive house. Their musical quality is excellent and their case designs are especially attractive. They are considered exceptional value, and are sold by many of the leading piano merchants of the country. Lakeside pianos and player-pianos enjoy a well-merited popularity and their place in the trade is securely established. The company is responsible in every way.

LAUTER The Lauter piano and the Lauter Humana player-piano's have been made for many years and lay claim to distinctive features. The Lauter Co. was established in 1862 in Newark, N.J.

LEHR Made by H. Lehr & Co., Easton, Pa. This concern was organized in 1890 and has had a continuous record of successfully producing fine instruments. The original owner. Horace Lehr, is still at the head and now has associated with him his two sons, Horace A. Lehr and Henry S. Lehr. A complete line of Lehr upright, player, electric player, grand and reproducing grand pianos are made. Their high musical value is recognized throughout the country as well as their reliability and beauty, of construction. Manufactured under most favorable conditions, instruments of high quality are produced at a reasonable cost. The LaFayette pianos and player-piano's are also made by H. Lebr & Co. to supply the demand for good instruments at a popular price.

LEINS Admirable pianos and player pianos bearing this name have appeared since 1859, when the industry producing these instruments was established in New York City. The Leins piano is thoroughly well made, of choice materials It Is the product of E. Leins Piano Co., incorporated, at the head of which is Mr. E. Leins, whose name the piano bears. Fredrick B. Roth, secretary and treasurer. It may easily be realized that under such conditions the Leins piano is the embodiment of careful workmanship and an ambition to excel. The Leins pianos are not produced in vast numbers, but each one is the result of deliberation and care. Leins pianos are now sold by many dealers and the factory output increases with the spread of the demand for good pianos. It may be said that the Leins piano is the product of one of the few remaining industries controlled by actual piano makers who personally superintend the progress of their pianos from beginning to the finished product. The Leins player piano is equally reliable and has won distinction by its merits.

LEONARD & CO. Upright, player and grand pianos which bear this name arc of fine quality are manufactured by the Lester Piano Co., of Philadelphia. They are instruments of beautiful tone quality and superior workmanship. The material and construction are unexceptional and the Leonard stands high in the judgments of critical trade. Leonard pianos and players are increasing in popularity as they become widely known, and they are commended with the utmost assurance of satisfaction, and are sold by the best class of piano merchants throughout the country. Until recently the Leonard & Company line consisted of uprights and player-pianos only, which have become so popular with the trade because of their sterling quality and reasonable price that the company decided in 1925 to make the Leonard line complete by the addition of the Leonard & Company grand. This marvelous grand, while only 4 feet 11 inches long, possesses the tone and other desirable features found heretofore only in the larger grands.

LESTER Lester pianos won a high place in the world of music because of their sweetness of tone and the care expended in their construction. Adherence, on the part of the Lester Piano Co., to the principle of creating quality instruments, rather than to build vast numbers of pianos, has been the basis of Lester reputation. No detail in Lester construction, by which the tone and durability might he perfected, was permitted to pass. As a result, many famous pianists placed their approval upon Lester pianos. Among them a are such names as the famed director; Louise Homer. American artists; Campanari, eminent baritone; Alice Nielson, operatic soprano; Kneisel, violinist and concert meister; Bell Alten, soprano of Metropolitan opera, and scores of others; also many great music schools, as the New England Conservatory, of Boston; Syracuse University; Broad Street Conservatory, Philadelphia; Converse College, Spartansburg, S. C.; Lewisburg Female Institute, Lewisburg, W. Va.; East Carolina Teachers' Training School, Greenville, N. C., and many others. Lester pianos are used in nearly 100,000 homes, and in most of the public schools of Philadelphia. What could speak more plainly of piano merit? The Lester player-piano is no less prominent; its action is also the product of Lester Piano Co. factories, and it has many special features of recognized superiority. The latest addition to the Lester line is the Reproducing piano, operated electrically, in both upright and grand cases. The performances of the world's greatest pianists are accurately reproduced, among others the hand playing of Paderewski, Pugno, Josef Hofmann, Leopold Godowsky, Busoni, DePachmann, Gabrilowitsch. DeBussy and a host of other celebrities.

LESSING Reliable pianos of pleasing tone quality, attractive de signs and finish, and most durable construction. Made, marketed and guaranteed by Smith, Barnes & Strohber Co. Chicago. In creating the Lessing the manufacturers had in mind the great and growing demand for pianos of the utmost durability, to be sold at very high prices, and still to insure lasting value and satisfaction. Lessing player pianos are no less attractive. It need not be said that the Smith, Barnes & Strohber Co. Is an industry of unquestioned merit and ethics. The Lessing piano was the single most sought after instruments in areas of the country where bad weather was a factor. The Lessing was popular in Canada and Alaska. There is more Lessing upright pianos in use than any other manufacturer. Large factories in Chicago and North Milwaukee. One of the very few uprights worthy of restoration due to the excellence in materials and workmanship.

LINDEMAN & SONS The Lindeman & Sons is the second oldest piano factory in America, Lindeman & Sons pianos have been manufactured since 1886, and have been famous for high quality and reasonable prices. The line includes uprights, grands and players, The Celco Reproducing Medium is included in Lindeman & Sons' pianos.

LINDNER Manufactured for many years by M. Lindner, Buffalo, N. Y. They are instruments of good tone quality and durable construction, Mr. Lindner is a piano builder of note and he is ably assisted by Mr. C. F.Linder, also an expert piano specialist.

LEXINGTON Pianos of beautiful design and hand crafted scrolling. See Jacob Doll & Sons.

LUDWIG Ludwig grands, uprights and player-pianos and reproducing pianos are noted for handsome case designs and full resonant and sympathetic quality of tone, and this, together with the high quality of the action, has established their superiority and popularity. They are fine instruments in which there is distinctive character and high order of attainment. The famous Ludwig instruments are manufactured by Ludwig & Co. a company of practical piano makers, and the foremen of the factories have been given an interest in the business in order that they should have an additional and personal incentive to attain the highest efficiency in their respective departments. This company is of high standing and responsibility

The plant being one of the finest and best equipped in the world. Ludwig & Co. Is the originator of the Unit Valve Player Action with which the Ludwig player-piano is equipped. The unit system, which permits each valve to be removed separately, appeal not only to the executive, but to the maintenance man. It reduces the upkeep expense to a minimum, because its mechanism, in perfect playing condition, is simple and easy. All parts of the players' action are easily accessible from the front without removing the action. The Ludwig player-piano is easily operated and its accurate and sensitive action leaves an effect like that of the human fingers and thereby affords correct musical expression. The construction of this player, combining simplicity, strength and durability, insures lasting service. The players' action, while a part of the piano, in no way interferes with hand playing. The Ludwig Piano was signally honored with a high award at the Paris Exposition of 1900 and it was given the highest award given to Ludwig pianos at the Pan American Exposition. Buffalo, N. Y., 1901, also the London Crystal Palace Exposition, London, England in 1902. A number of prominent artists and musicians have endorsed the Ludwig piano in terms of the highest praise.

LINK Player pianos, coin operated, reproducing pipe organs and pianos, with selective rolls for theaters, etc. is manufactured by the Link Piano Co., Inc.,

LYON & HEALY The Lyon & Healy piano is the product of the old established general music house of the same name, of Chicago. Its manufacturers refuse to build in greater numbers than is consistent with the utmost care. The case designs are after sketches by well-known architects and are acknowledged models in their way. The "Apartment Grand" is an instrument of unique character and is recognized as a fine specimen of artistic piano manufacture. It presents some special features and in tone quality it is remarkable not only because of its power and clarity, but in that, while small in dimensions, it is in every essential feature a real grand. This instrument is also made in the popular art period designs. The new Lyon & Healy Concert Grand has already won commendation for its purity and sonority of tone. This instrument is full concert size. The Lyon & Healy Reproducing Piano is made both in grand and upright models. The instruments are attractive in designs, of admirable tone quality, and they have made a decided impression on the trade and music loving public. They are perfectly reliable in every particular. The manufacturers are experts and their experience has taught them what the piano buying people prefer.

MACEY & KAMP Well made, sweet toned, and in every way dependable pianos and player-pianos and grand pianos. They are the products of the Goldsmith Piano Co. of Chicago. Good values for a fair price are insured and the success of these instruments attests their qualities.

MANSFIELD Mansfield pianos and player-pianos have won an enviable reputation for their superior workmanship, material, tone qualities, beautiful case designs and for the satisfaction they render. They are known for their quality and individuality and are manufactured in one of the most modern and well-equipped plants in the country. As manufacturers the Mansfield Piano Company has a distinguished position. The high standard to are still in force, and before leaving the factory here to are still in force, and before leaving the factory, every instrument is thoroughly inspected by one of the individual members of the firm, all of whom are practical piano builders. This is one of the established houses that have never tried to see how many instruments they could make, but instead have always tried to see how perfectly they could construct each piano. "Quality First" is the slogan that is held to throughout the organization. A combination of expert workmen, best selected material, and the desire to make only the best in pianos, gives every Mansfield piano a distinct individuality which is further strengthened by many valuable inventions which are not merely talking points, but improvements of value Mansfield pianos and player pianos have received the endorsements of well-known artists in both this and foreign countries, and are sold by some of the most prominent dealers in the United States. They have been placed in many public institutions where they are daily rendering satisfactory.

MARCELLUS One the three pianos made by the Heppe Piano Co., of Philadelphia and New York. This piano has the patented Heppe Three Sounding Boards, and is sold by the firm of Heppe & Son.

MANUALO "The Player Piano with the Human Touch." Found exclusively in the player-pianos made by the House of Baldwin. The Manualo is not a detached piano player nor a player action installed in a piano. It is a complete distinctive instrument a player piano built as a player piano unit. No other player piano is a Manualo. A few features are the accented pedal action, giving the instrument the human touch, standardized a replaceable valve and air finger units, direct striking pneumatics, an original bellows arrangement, short rounded air passages and the simplest and most responsive tempo arrangement. The Manualo was awarded the grand prize at the London Exposition, 1914. This is the greatest recognition ever bestowed upon any player piano. The Manualo ranks as one of the leaders in the player-piano world. Controlled by The Baldwin Piano Co. See "Baldwin," "Ellington," "Howard" and "Hamilton."

MARSHALL & WENDELL An old time name in the piano industry, one of the pioneers in American piano history. Established in Albany, N. Y., in 1836. Marshall & Wendell entered upon an enlarged career. The demand for these instruments is very large and especially for home use. These pianos have been the recipients of awards at three of the most important exhibitions at the Pan American in 1901, Seattle-Yukon in 1909, the Panama Pacific Exposition at San Francisco, and their most recent triumph was the award received at the great exposition held at Rio de Janeiro to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the independence of the Brazilian Republic. The beauty of the case designs of the Marshall & Wendell is evidenced in the styles shown in the catalog of the present year. They are characterized by simplicity and beauty of proportion which make them harmonize with furnishings of finest character. In addition to the several upright styles in the Marshall & Wendell there are the Marshall & Wendell grand pianos. The celebrated Ampico, which automatically re-enacts the playing of the world's greatest pianists, is obtainable in the Marshall & Wendell.

MARSHALL In the summer of 1919 the Marshall Piano Company was organized in Chicago by J, P. Seeburg, who for many years had been at the head of another industry which bore his name. In 1920 consolidated with the J.P. Seeburg Piano Co.

MARVEOLA One of the recognized lines of well made and reliable popular pianos made by Weser Bros., Inc., in the great factory of that industry at 520-28 West 43rd Street, New York.

MADISON The Madison Piano Co. of New York, was incorporated in the winter of 1917, after manufacturing the Madison pianos and player-pianos for a number of years.

MASON & HAMLIN Instruments of the rarest artistic merit. The remarkable excellence of Mason & Hamlin pianofortes has gained worldwide recognition. Its tone has a sympathetic quality which distinguishes it from all others and which musicians say they find in no other piano. Lowell Mason, who has been called the father of church music in America. A leader of the highest integrity, with exquisite taste and a refined musical nature, he was of devoted to the arts since graduating from Harvard in 1888. Supplementing his training in every department of the business enjoyed a wide acquaintance with the leading musicians of the world at that time and a sensitive, intuitive appreciation of their individual natures, aims and aspirations.

No family has contributed more to the progress of music in America than the Masons of Massachusetts and New York. Their forebears first touched these shores at Plymouth in the company of the Mayflower. During the first half of the 19th century, Professor Lowell Mason of The Boston Academy of Music was recognized as the outstanding musical figure of his day. Through his militant efforts, and the free gift of his time as a patient instructor, the teaching of music in the public school curriculum had its advent in Boston in 1837. To the millions of school children who now enjoy that privilege all over America, he is as much a patron saint as is Horace Mann the father of the common schools. His name is preserved for posterity, too, as author of some 450 hymn tunes not the least of which is "Nearer My God to Thee."

This genius for music flamed anew in his two sons who were to give it expression in vastly different ways. Both acquired what musical training this country then afforded. Then, both continued their studies in Europe. Dr. William Mason was a pupil of the immortal Franz Liszt and returned to impart his knowledge as dean of. piano teachers in New York City for many years.

Henry Mason sought further instruction at a German university from which he was graduated with an imbued devotion to music that embraced the perfectionism of German thought and teaching. He returned, with all enthusiasm of a pioneer, to spend his life at the task of providing the best possible musical instruments for the release of talent in America. In the year 1854, he found the right partner for his crusade in the person of Emmons Hamlin, an instrument maker of considerable 'renown.

Mr. Hamlin had been associated with George A. Prince & Co. of Buffalo, maker's melodious. There he had perfected the first satisfactory method for producing the sounds of other instruments, such as the clarinet and violin, through the voicing of organ reeds. These discoveries he had already incorporated in a new instrument of his invention known as the Organ Harmonium.

The two sons of Henry Mason followed in the family tradition. Daniel Gregory Mason turned his talent to the field of composition and authored a galaxy of works that were interpreted by the fore most symphony orchestras. Emulating his uncle William, he turned to teaching as head of the music department at Columbia University. Henry L. Mason followed in his father's footsteps and was associated with the Mason & Hamlin Co. for forty years until his retirement. Later he turned to writing on music.

The firm of Mason & Hamlin first engaged in the manufacturing of the Organ Harmonium, forerunner of the pipe organs and home-sized reed organs that were to make the name famous, but they soon branched out to include the building of pianofortes of equal' reputation. Mr. Mason was a musician of rare discrimination. An idealist whose goal was perfection. Mr. Hamlin was a painstaking craftsman of the old school whose inventive genius provided the means for attaining that goal, and whose example inspired others to work with him: Success came quickly and the renown of their instruments was lasting because they were built always with that goal in mind. To achieve individual perfection in each instrument, Mason & Hamlin pianofortes and consoles has always been built by craftsmen whose efforts are devoted exclusively to their manufacture. It was natural from the beginning that pianos thus built to be the "finest" would also be the "costliest."

The reward of this seeking after perfection is in the satisfaction the Mason & Hamlin Co. has in the expressed appreciation of thousands of discriminating owners who have found that the extra cost of a Mason & Hamlin piano buys musical enjoyment, and proves to be' a most economical investment when the longer life of a Mason & Hamlin is divided by original cost.

The Mason & Hamlin manufacturing plant, spacious and thoroughly equipped, was located in Boston on Harrison Ave., Waltham and Union Park St., and was a model of scientific arrangement and effective operation. Its workmen, of matured skill were trained to the Mason & Hamlin standard of excellence, were artists in their line who are imbued with the spirit of their leaders and are always striving for finer results. 

MASCOT A small keyless automatic piano, playing regular tent rewind music roll, made by the Western Electric Piano Co.

MATHUSHEK The creator and developer of the "Over stringing" of a piano. One of the oldest and most important names associated with the American piano industry, manufactured by Mathushek Piano Mfg. Co. The instruments were of a very high standard quality containing many valuable, distinctive features, which were most valuable commented upon by the Scientific American in the issue of September 22, 1900, and which related a full description of the special construction of the iron frame; the original method of stringing; the sound board made up of narrow strips of spruce in which the grain of one run transversely to that of the one adjoining; the improved method of holding the tuning pins; the absence of the heavy vertical posts in the back, made unnecessary by the plate construction, all of which contributes to the remarkable resonant quality of the instruments and have been the means of the Mathushek being designated "The most durable pianos in the world." The instrument takes its name from its founder, Frederick Mathushek, one of the of the most interesting characters in the history of the piano industry, and who has produced many wonderful inventions. Quoting from "Pianos and Their Makers," by Alfred Dolge "It is impossible to discuss or even enumerate the manifold inventions of Frederick Mathushek. His whole existence was dominated by the desire to produce in a piano that ideal musical tone which he could hear mentally, just as the deaf Beethoven heard his symphonic poems when he wrote them. The piano industry of America is largely indebted for its wonderful development to the genius of Frederick Mathushek." The Mathushek Players and Reproducing Grands and Uprights have been devoted to a very high stage of perfection and measure up to the high ideals established by the founder of the business. There is probably no concern better equipped to meet the requirements of foreign countries than the Mathushek Piano Mfg. Co.

MARLOWE Reliable and popular throughout the United States, and are being sold in ever increasing numbers. The Marlowe pianos and players are made of excellent materials by thorough piano makers, and the player mechanism in these instruments are installed with utmost care so as to insure permanent satisfaction.

MAYNARD Popular pianos bearing this name are from the factory of the Werner Piano Co., Chicago, Ill., The origin of these pianos offers a perfect guarantee of their reliability.

McPHAIL MePhail pianos, in tone, construction and material employed, maintain a place of distinction. They are high grade pianos in every sense. These makers specialize in small Grand pianos and have won a high place in the trade for these instruments, both as to tone quality and beautiful case design.

MELOSTRELLE This division of Steger & Sons Piano Mfg. Co. produces "Melostrelle" upright, grand and player-pianos. Melostrelle instruments are praised for beauty of tone durability of construction, dignity of design and remarkable refinement of detail. They have merited recognition among music lovers as most desirable instruments for the artistic home. Melostrelle small grands are made in the "Piano City," Steger, Illinois. In a separate, three story factory devoted exclusively to the manufacture of fine grand pianos. Melostrelle Player-Pianos are equipped with the celebrated drum-tight, Steger E-Z Action. Permanent satisfaction is guaranteed by the undivided responsibility back of Melostrelle instruments.

MEHLIN & SONS Pianos and player-pianos bearing this well-known name stands well in the world of music and are sold by many reliable houses. They are handsome instruments and reliable.

McCAMMON The original factory, established by the Senior McCammon, in 1832, was located at Albany, N. Y., and afterwards removed to Oneonta N.Y. In 1900 the registered trademark "McCammon" and what remained of the business was purchased by William Tonk & Bro., Inc., 452-456 Tenth Ave., New York City, who have since continued the manufacture of this well known piano under a separate organization, the original company name being retained. The McCammon has always been an instrument of good standing on account of its superior qualities, and in the hands of the present makers, many improvements have been added. This instrument is made with special care and with a view to great durability, not only for our own climate, but also for varying climates of foreign countries; of excellent tone qualities, honestly made throughout and in every respect thoroughly reliable.

MELDORF Manufactured and fully guaranteed by H. C. Bay Company, Chicago and Bluifton, Indiana. Popular, durable and desirable instruments which have long been in great demand. The name "Meldorf" is registered in US. Patent Office.

MELODIGRAND These instruments have a specially constructed sounding board which prevents its splitting. Made in uprights, grands, player-pianos and reproducing pianos. Refer to S. G. Lindeman & Son, Inc

MELVILLE CLARK This name is one of the oldest and best-known names in the piano trade, dating hack to 1875. Melville Clark pianos are now manufactured by The De KaIb Piano Company of De KaIb, Illinois. The line consists of a small grand piano and an electric expression grand piano. These instruments are of excellent quality and are available in several different designs.

MENDELSSOHN Established by an industry at Mekeesport, Pa, which bore the famous name, the Mendelssohn piano had won popularity when the industry was bought by the Sterling Company, one of the old and distinguished industries of Derby, Conn., and Brooklyn, N. Y. The Mendelssohn pianos and player-pianos are reliable, attractive and of beautiful tone quality. They have been so long familiar to trade and public that they maintain an even demand and give satisfaction to a discriminating class of music lovers. Refer also to the Sterling Company.


A name familiar in the piano world. It is the name of the founder of the Merrill Piano Co., which began in Boston many years ago. The industry is now affiliated with the Jacob Doll & Sons Piano Co.

MIDGET The descriptive name applied to a very small piano possessing the musical qualities of the standard sizes, manufactured by The Cable Company of Chicago.

MIDGETTE The name of an artistic small grand piano manufactured by the Bush & Lane Piano Co., of Holland, Mich. Fine instruments in every way.

MIESSNER "The Little Piano with the Big Tone." This piano is 3 feet, 1' inches high, 4 feet, 6 inches wide, and 2 feet in depth, and is noted for its beautiful quality of tone. The remarkable Miessner is manufactured by the Miessner Piano Company, Milwaukee. These instruments have been used extensively in small homes, apartments, universities, colleges and public schools. They have been endorsed by many prominent musicians and heads of some of the largest and best-known music dealers in the country. The little Miessner is perfectly adapted to the purposes of schools and homes where space is restricted. And the tone and power of this instrument are really a revelation to students of acoustics.

HENRY F. MILLER Among the art products of the American piano industry IS the instruments of Henry F. Miller & Sons, and a division of the Continental Piano Co., and these instruments represent the highest attainments. The Henry F. Miller pianofortes have so long been the favorites with a large share of the world's great pianists and the music loving public that they are recognized as of the highest attainments.

S. W. MILLER The name borne by these admirable pianos is that of an expert acoustician and piano maker. The company was established twenty years ago in 1906, and has produced a large number of instruments of quality. A feature of the product is that only one style is produced for piano, player and electric reproducer. The latter are called the "Electora," and it is equally as desirable in construction.

MILTON This name is a familiar one to the magical world generally. Milton pianos have been manufactured for many years and always with the care that produces most satisfactory results. The modern factories in which the Milton piano is produced are new, large structures located at 626-630 West 51st St., New York City. Milton pianos and player-pianos are thoroughly well-made, beautiful instruments, designed for a class of discriminating music lovers. They possess a tone at once powerful and sweet. They are pianos in which purchasers are assured good values and they are pianos that give exceptional satisfaction. Milton reproducing pianos are equally representative and popular.

MILTON PLAYER-PIANO The player-piano of the Milton Piano Co. is an exceedingly popular instrument, the sale of which is steadily increasing everywhere. The characteristics of this player-piano are musically, identical with those of the Milton piano. The player action is one of the most approved and thoroughly up-to-date. The performance is easy and accurate, and in the point of durability there is no question.

MINI-PIANO Trade Name Built by Hardman-Peck. A Popular 5' Grand Piano.

MINUM Name adopted by the Starr Piano Co., of Richmond, Ind.

MODELLO A player-piano, produced by the House of Baldwin. The Modello is an instrument of genuine merit, which meets the public demand for a real player piano at a popular price. The Modello is a player piano of which any family may be proud. Its simplicity of lines is strictly in accord with modern taste and its mechanism is of the most advanced type. It stands without a better at its price. The sale of the Modello is controlled by the Baldwin Piano Co., Cincinnati, Ohio

MONARCH A popular piano manufactured by the Monarch Piano Co., of Chicago. The Monarch pianos and player-pianos are desirable instruments of attractive character at moderate prices for unsurpassed values. Perfectly safe to buy. See the Baldwin Piano Co.

MONOGRAM Small school pianos hearing this name are manufactured by the Miessner Piano Company, of Milwaukee, Wis. These instruments are thoroughly well made of good materials and possess qualities of peculiar power and attractiveness.

MORISSETTE Instruments of good tone and construction, which are embodied several patents-uprights, player-pianos and grands. The name is that of the manufacturers there being associated in it, H. L Morissette, Philip A. Morissette and Zinon Morissette, also Louis Leseault.

MUSICALE Pianos and player-pianos of durable character and admirable tone qualities hearing this name were manufactured by the Mansfield Piano Co. of 749-51 East 135th St. New York City.

MULTI-REPRODUCER A special-patented mechanism which multiplies the musical enjoyment derivable from the reproducing piano, either grand or upright. It reduces to extraordinary simplicity the operative control of the reproducing piano. Bush & lane Piano Co., at Holland, Mich., were the distributors. The Multi-Reproducer will function with any reproducing piano. No special roll is required. Any regular grand piano can be converted into a reproducing instrument with Multi-Reproducer control. The Multi-Reproducer is the latest major development in the reproducing field. It provides selective and continuous operation of the reproducing piano. A little punch button standard, placed on a chair arm, table, or in any convenient place, affords entire control for continuous entertainment with no attention to changing of rolls and with no effort other than the pressing of the buttons. Many selections, each having its own individual button control, can be played in any order. The reproducing piano itself may be in the same room or an adjoining room, and, if a grand, is usable for hand playing without the interference of the drawer beneath the key bed which in the regular reproducing grand is always in the way. The mechanism constituting the Multi-Reproducer and the roll magazine is contained in a separate table cabinet or can be specially installed in suitable furniture or in a wall niche or closet.

NATIONAL Coin operated pianos bearing this name were admirable instruments in every respect. They were manufactured by the National Electric Piano and Roll Co. of St. Johnsville. N. Y. These instruments were especially suited for theaters and other places of public entertainment. Also manufacture "Peerless" models, "Cabaret," "Elite" and "DeLuxe Orchestrion."

NELSON-WIGGEN Players, grands and automatic pianos designed for private, as well as public use in places of refined entertainment, theaters and other purposes, are the products of The Nelson-Wiggen Piano Co., of Chicago. These instruments embrace the Pian-O-Grand, the Harp-O-Grand and the Banj-O-Grand all of durable and dependable construction and capable of the musical effects of orchestras. The Pian-O-Grand is equipped with xylophone, or bells and banjo attachment.

NEEDHAM Aside from the force and influence of an old and distinguished name the Needham pianos possess merit and are handsome instruments. Needham player-pianos are equally reliable. Made by the Needham Co., controlled Kindler & Collins, New York City. The Needham name was established in 1846 by Elias Parkham Needham.

NETZOW Pianos and player-pianos bearing this well-known name is the product of the C. F. Netzow Manufacturing Co., of Milwaukee, Wis. They are instruments of admirable quality, The ambition of the manufacturer being to produce only instruments of a high grade in which purchasers are insured the requisite results and good large values.

NEWBY & EVANS The factory of the Newby & Evans Co. Was at the corner of Southern Blvd. and 136th St., New York. The business, which was started in 1884, was incorporated in 1897 made uprights only, for which they obtained high awards in 1890 at the Atlanta (GL) exposition. The Newby & Evans player-pianos were equally reliable and contain improvements which stamp them as instruments of superior quality.

NEWTON Pianos, player-pianos, electric expression pianos, reproducing pianos and grands made by Newton Piano Co., New York City. Favorite Newton pianos were first placed on the market in 1899 by Camp & Co. Newton Camp, the founder of that concern, was an experienced piano and organ builder who had devoted his lifetime to the science of constructing musical instruments. He was for many years a member of the famous firm of Estey & Camp. It was always Newton Camp's ambition to build a piano that would gratify his ideals as to what a really high grade piano should be. After years of ceaseless experimenting, Newton Camp at last perfected his product, and in 1899 together with several of the most experienced piano makers of New York City the organized the firm of Camp & Co. The piano was called" The Newton," adopting as the name of the instrument, the given name of the man who was chiefly responsible for its all round excellence. Several years later, after the Newton piano had proven a success and the name Newton was firmly impressed on the minds of the public as representative of a piano of real worth, it was decided to change the name of the company to the Newton Piano Co., in order that the manufacturing company might be more closely identified in the popular mind with the piano, and that each might lend the additional strength of its prestige to the other. The Newton pianos and player-pianos and grands are easy, reliable, and they give great satisfaction wherever introduced.

NEWMAN BROS. CO. Newman Bros. Co. manufacture the highest quality Grand, upright, player and Reproducing pianos; phonographs, player actions and reproducing actions. Their pianos, both in the Grand and upright designs, are especially known for their remarkably appealing tonal qualities. The sweet mellowness of tone, and wide range of volume make their instruments a favorite with those musically educated. Their styles are always of the most modern design, and the superior durability of Newman Bros. instruments is well known and readily understood when it is known they employ in all departments only the most skilled of the piano trade craftsmen, and all material must measure up to their critical requirements before it can enter into the construction of a "Newman Bros." It is expected of a Newman Bros. instrument "that it stays in tune longer and requires fewer repairs than instruments of other manufacture." All their instruments are built up to a standard, and not down to a price. Each instrument is most care) fully and individually built, and none "rushed" through in large "lots." Their player-pianos are of the better type and are unusually responsive instruments. Their reproducing pianos, in grand and upright designs, contain their own remarkable reproducing action. They are truly a delightful instrument and made to contain the most standard and generally used reproducing roll. By simply pressing a button, there is splendidly reproduced the actual playing, with the varying degrees of touch and tone. Loudness and softness of the composer of the piece. Newman Bros. Co. occupies their own factories at Dix Street and Chicago Avenue, Chicago, and they are model buildings in all that term implies. They are well equipped with modern machinery, every facility necessary for the production of superior pianos being afforded. More than fifty years experience in making only high grade instruments is sufficient assurance that the discriminating purchaser will take great pride in their "Newman Bros." For instruments of their high quality, their prices are remarkably reasonable.

GEO. B. NORRIS Pianos and player-pianos bearing this name are the products of the Holland Piano Mfg. Co., of Minneapolis Minn. with factory in Menomonie, Wis. These instruments have won an enviable place in the musical world by their attractive appearance, fine tone and durable construction. The name is that of the president of the industry by which Geo. B. Norris instruments are made. This fact gives to these pianos and player pianos a prestige that is recognized by the piano trade. These instruments are characterized by a rich and sonorous tone; the touch is fine and the outward appearance beautiful. They are made by a reliable industry and are sold with assurance of good results by piano dealers throughout the country. The factory at Menomonie, Wis. , is under the personal management of Mr. Jas. B. Sleeper, one of the acknowledged experts in American piano construction. See Holland Piano Mfg. Co.

NILSON & Co. Well made and reliable pianos manufactured by the James & Holmstrom Piano Co., Inc.

NOBLE A. E. Noble, proprietor of the Noble Piano Co., of Detroit

NORLAND This is the name of a well made, thoroughly reliable and popular line of pianos. Player-pianos and registering pianos produced by the Holland Piano Co.

NORDLUND The effects of the Nordlund Grand Piano Co., Chicago, were sold in October 1925, to the New Delaware Piano Co. of Muncie. Ind. which continued to employ the Nordlund scales.

NORRIS & HYDE Pianos and player-pianos bearing this old established name have been on the market since 1873 and have always been of good quality. They are made in the factories of Jacob Doll & Sons Piano Co.

NORMANDIE Pianos and players of this name are made in their modem and completely equipped factory at East Rochester, N. Y. These instruments have been before the public for upwards of fifteen years and each year has gained in reputation. The cases are of modern construction.

OPERA The trademark "Opera" was adopted by the late David T. Peek, who commenced the manufacture of pianos in 1850, and whose skill made the Opera one of the most popular pianos throughout the country. The Opera is one of the distinctive names that has attained a prominent position in the piano world. The "Opera" baby grand has attracted much attention, and meets with the same popularity as is accorded to the very attractive styles of uprights.

ORPHEUS Instruments, player-pianos and small Grands from the reliable and distinguished industry of Adam Schaaf, Inc.

PACKARD Instruments of the highest grade and of extensive sale abroad as well as at home, manufactured by The Packard Piano Co., Ft. Wayne. Ind. The product of a model industry in which the cooperative stem of labor is brought to the point of perfection. Principle of The Packard Piano Co. finds expression in the maxim that "if there is no harmony in the factory, there will be none in the piano." The workings of the Packard factory at Ft. Wayne, Ind., present an ideal example of harmonious industry. Every worker is loyal to the Packard and puts into it the best results of his skill and effort. The Packard piano has been before the musical world for years, and has attained a foremost place as a reliable instrument of most artistic qualities. It has won high endorsements from many famous musicians, and has met the requirements of all buyers. The output of these instruments has greatly increased each year and the factory facilities have been enlarged until today the Ft. Wayne industry is one of the largest in the country. The Packard Interpreter player-piano (grand, upright and reproducing styles) presents the same artistic characteristics as the Packard piano, and the best proof of merit is its steady growth and the high esteem in which it is held by those who have used it and are most intimately acquainted with it. Both upright and grand pianos are made; and in tone, construction, style and artistic features they are strictly of a high grade. They are the product of an ambitious house of the highest responsibility. In all that makes an artistic instrument of the highest grade the Packard is recommended.

PEEK & SON Pianos of good quality bearing this name is from the factory of Jacob Bros.

PEASE Pianos and players made by the PEASE Piano Co.,one of New York's old and substantial industries. Pease pianos have been pianos of this make are also of dependable kind.

PEERLESS Coin-operated musical instruments adaptable for ice cream parlors, pool halls, lodges, candy stores, restaurants, waiting rooms, dance halls, smoke shops, etc., in special models to suit space and character of music desired, from piano to Orchestrion combinations. Manufactured by the National Electric Piano Co., of St. Jolmsvillt, N.Y.

PERLMAN Instruments of this name are produced in small numbers a by H. W. Perlman

PIAN-O-GRAND The suggestive name of a fine electric automatic piano designated for public places of entertainment, manufactured by the Nelson-Wiggen Piano Co., 1731 Belmont Ave., Chicago, where, in 1924, the industry took possession of its splendid new factory. The automatic instruments of this industry are suitable for all places of public or private entertainment, See also Nelson-Wiggen Piano Co,


PREMIER GRAND Small grand pianos of remarkable characteristics, manufactured by the Premier Grand Piano Corporation of New York City, Claimed to be the largest and most diverse line of small grands made, consisting of Model R, 4 feet 10 inches long, Aristocrat model, 5 feet 3 inches long; William and Mary,. Jacobean and Queen Anne Period model, Oriental, two-tone and inlaid border models, all "in the drawer" type action. Premier Reproducing Grands and Reproducing Grands (Welte-Mignon Licensee). These instruments are of great beauty and the tone quality is typical of grand pianos thoroughly constructed and possessing the appeal to critical judgments. The methods employed in the manufacture of these instruments are of the most approved and modern. The size of the Premier Grand at once meets with the requirements of the average home and the demand for these small grand is the best proof that they fill a real want which has been developing in the musical world. Thoroughly good instruments of the safe kind to buy.

PRICE & TEEPLE A famous name in the annals of American pianos and players. These instruments are dependable and of fine quality. Made in many designs and of uniform excellence. The company, under new control, is sustaining the long)time reputation of the manufacturers. Made by Price & Teeple Piano Co., Chicago, Ill.

RADCLIFFE This is the name pianos and player Nelson Piano Co. The exclusive trademark of the Aeolian Company under which it markets its Player-Pianos, Artist Reproducing Pianos, Cabinet Players, Automatic Player Actions and Accessories.

WALTER S. PIERCE Manufactured, in limited quantities and for local trade, by the Walter S. Pierce Co., San Francisco, Cal. The business was incorporated in 1893. Established 1863.

PLAYERNOLA Player=pianos of admirable quality and reliable in every way. Made by Becker Bros., Inc., 52nd Street and 10th Avenue, New York. Perfectly safe instruments and always satisfying.

PLAYOTONE A high class player-piano manufactured in the Autotone department of Hardman, Peck & Co., New York, Desirable instruments in every respect. See Hardman

PLAYTONA A copyrighted name owned by Grinnell Bros., Detroit, Mich., and used on a certain style of player piano made especially for them by one of the leading manufacturers. An unusually well-built and thoroughly reliable instrument which carries the guarantee of both Grinnell Bros. and the makers.

POOLE Grand, upright, player, and reproducing pianos are made by the Poole Piano Company, Boston, Mass.,an old reliable piano manufacturing concern that was founded in 1893 by the late William H. Poole, a man of extensive experience from earliest youth in the manufacture of high quality pianos. In 1917 the Poole Piano Company was incorporated, and from that date to the present time has been under the direct management and supervision of Ava W. Poole, son of the late Wm. H. Poole, as president and general manager of the corporation. Associated with him are the same force of assistants who have for over a quarter of a century been connected with the production and promotion of Poole instruments which have long occupied a place of distinction with the piano trade and the public. Poole pianos are durable, reliable and desirable instruments. They contain a well)balanced scale and are justly entitled to the high position that they hold. They possess that rare singing quality of tone found only in instruments of the highest grade. In tone, action, design and durability it may be said that Poole pianos leave nothing to be desired.

PRESTON Pianos and player-pianos of very attractive characteristics and modern construction manufactured in a perfectly equipped factory by skilled workmen. The tone and appearance of these instruments justifies the favor with which they are received by the music loving public. The Preston is represented by responsible piano merchants throughout the country. Manufactured by Milton Piano Co.

PRIMATONE Pianos and player pianos, made by the Foster Armstrong Co. in one of their fine factories at East Rochester, N. Y. A distinguishing characteristic of the Primatone instruments is that some are furnished in diminutive sizes, which makes them especially desirable for use in homes where space is limited. But while compactness has been the desire of their makers, the instruments do not suffer either in tone quality or appearance, but are exponents of beauty of tone and design. Primatone pianos and players are made of excellent materials by thorough piano makers, and the player mechanisms furnished are selected from the most reliable and efficient known today. Exhibition rooms, No.437 Fifth Ave., New York City. of a line of thoroughly well made from the great industry of Cable-Nelson. The name is owned and controlled by the industry named and is registered in Washington. Radcliffe instruments are thoroughly well-made, of beautiful case designs and finish. The tone quality is of the kind that wins favor and which goes to make pianos in which there is large value for comparatively small cost. These instruments deserve the success which has built up for them a widespread demand.

RAUDENBUSH Pianos, both uprights and grands, are produced in small numbers by Raudenbush & Sons Piano Co., St. Paul, Minn. The industry was established in 1883.

REMINGTON The manufacture of Remington pianos has been for many years carried on at Richmond, Ind. This name as well as the corporate name, The Remington Piano Co., Richmond, Ind., is owned by The Starr Piano Co., of Richmond, Md. All instruments are made complete in the Starr factories. A substantial line of player pianos and upright pianos are made, each instrument carefully designed for the type of business for which it is intended. The name Remington was copyrighted for all musical instruments and is owned by The Starr Piano Co.

REGAL Popular instruments of durable character are produced by the Regal Piano & Player Co., of 93-95 South em boulevard. New York. The company manufactures pianos, player-pianos, electric expression players, and reproducing pianos. Regal is a name recognized throughout the piano world as a synonym of merit, moderate price and the kind of durability and dependability for the merchant and satisfaction for the piano loving public. The school piano, Styles 6 and 7, is perfectly adapted to class room and small parlors.

REGISTERING PIANO Characteristic name applied to the "nationally priced" Guibransen instruments to which refer in this section, so-called because the Gulbransen, through the pedals, actually regulation personal touch

REPRO-PHRASO The Story & Clark Repro-Pliraso is a player piano in which may be inserted any 88 note music roll and trace the melody throughout the composition as your own mood dictates as though you were playing with your hands on the keys. There is no suggestion of the mechanical in the musical effects. The melody sings to a softly subdued accompaniment. The same discretion in the production of delicate expression is attained as if the performer were expressing himself with the freedom of the finger)touch upon the keys. Control of the composition is perfect, and the musical interpretation such as can come only after long practice and complete musical knowledge. Thus the Repr-Phraso becomes the individual operational reproducing piano, which permits of human control and of expression, phrasing, accenting, melody playing and shading. This instrument has won the approval of experts, and it is the product of an old and absolutely responsible industry. It is a favorite with piano merchants and the music)loving public. Its special features are described in a booklet supplied by either the dealers or the manufacturers. Story & Clark Piano Co.

RADLE, F Pianos, player pianos and reproducing pianos manufactured by F. Radle, Inc., in the well-appointed factory at 609-11 West 36th SL, New York, Business established many years ago and the name of Radle has had a place in the industry from the dawn of American piano manufacture. The F. Radle instruments are, there fore, the results of long experience and a consistent ambition to attain to eminence. They are high)grade in every particular, and the F. Radle player-pianos have assumed a conspicuous place by reason of their unchallenged merits. They are made upon the most approved principles and they possess improvements of power in their appeal to both public and the trade. It would be impossible to commend these instruments too highly. The F. Radle Player de Luxe is a powerful instrument of fine quality. F. Radle case designs are new 2nd always original, and they are the special work of Mr. Radle himself. Some of the most prominent pianists and critics have given the Radle instruments unstinted praise. In the summer of 1923 the F. Radle reproducing piano appeared. It is of remarkable qualities and adds still more to the attainments of its makers as creators of true musical instruments. Piano merchants throughout the country commend the F. Radle pianos and player pianos as leaders and the instruments fullv justifies all that is said of them.

RAYMOND Name on pianos made for many years in Cleveland, Ohio, but in 1913 names was secured by B. H. Janssen, of New York, who organized the Raymond Piano Co. and is now making pianos bear the name at East 132nd Street and Brown Place.

REED & SONS One of the distinguished names in the piano world Reed & Sons' pianos and player-pianos are made by the Reed & Sons Division of Steger & Sons Piano Mfg., Co., of Chicago and Steger, Ill. The financial strength of the company is unquestioned. These instruments were established in 1842. The ideals which inspired the founder of the Reed & Sons' pianos still guide the manufacturers of these instruments. The Reed & Sons' piano was awarded a grand prize medal and other distinctions at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. It will be seen, therefore, that the Reed & Sons' piano of today is the result of long years of progress In tone, quality, power, durability and beautiful case designs, it is recognized as an instrument of unquestioned merit. And what has been said of the Reed & Sons' piano may equally be applied to the player piano of the same name. These instruments are fully guaranteed and made complete in the factories located at Steger, Ill.: general offices and sales rooms in the Steger Building, northwest comer Wabash Ave. and Jackson Blvd., Chicago

RICCA Instruments of high grade and superior tone qualities which are the results of long study and progressive research. In material, skill of workmanship and artistic case designs the Ricca pianos and player pianos have won a place among the standard instruments and have secured a firm place upon the public and trade. Ricca pianos appear in accord with changing tastes, and two of the later styles are in special demand. They are the new scales, in cases of 4 feet 7 inches and. 4 feet 3 inches, respectively. The new small grand is also of special interest and makes a strong appeal to discriminating lovers of the piano. This beautiful instrument is 5 feet 2 inches in length, and it is the result of long and critical effort to produce the most artistic small grand within the power of the skilled forces of the house to create. It is perfectly matched in tone and design. Powerful, yet sympathetic and appealing to refined tastes, this Ricca grand promises to win a place high among the better class of American pianos. The designs are of the Period and Art models, and it is also produced with repeating action. The Ricca Reproducing piano is the last word in latest development of the remarkable instrument that recreates the performances of the greatest masters of the piano. The export trade of Ricca & Son is a large feature in the business of the industry. The factory is one of the best appointed in New York City.

RICHMOND The Richmond Piano Co., established 1875, factory's Richmond, Indiana. This Company is owned and controlled by The Starr Piano Co. of Richmond, Ind.

REINHARD Pianos and player-pianos of popular characteristics made by Wissner & Sons, Inc., of Brooklyn, N. Y. These instruments are durable and have been on the market for years. Office, 55-57 Flatbush Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.

RUDOLF Manufactured by the Rudolf Piano Co., New York. A reliable piano that has become very popular. Produced by experienced piano makers under an economical system in an endeavor, which has been successful, to offer to the trade and public a musical and durable piano at a reasonable price.

ADAM SCHAAF The home of the famous Adam Schaaf grand, upright and player pianos and reproducing pianos is now at their imposing, and beautiful six stories fireproof building, 319-321 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago. This, with the new factory at 1020 Central Park Avenue, Chicago, costing about $400,000, makes the Adam Schaaf institution one of the best equipped in the world. It marks a new fulfillment of a great idea and ideals that have won in an unprecedented degree. And to still higher levels the Adam Schaaf instruments continue to advance time tested by thousands of satisfied, ever enthusiastic owners and customers. To make still better the best Adam Schaaf piano has been the aim and the inspiration of the experienced workers in the Adam Schaaf factory as well as the ambition of the gentlemen who direct the company's destinies. How well these aims and ambitions have succeeded is told in the fact that the three fold output has not kept pace with the steadily increasing demand. These instruments are the product of a house of the highest responsibility and unlimited credit. Adam Schaaf Reproducing Pianos in Grands and Uprights are very distinguished.

SCHAEFFER Pianos and player pianos which have gained an enviable reputation for beautiful tone qualities. Sold by the largest dealers throughout the country. First manufactured in New York by William Schaeffer beginning about 100 years ago in 1873 he was one of the early pioneer piano builders of the European school, In 1878 the Schaefer was awarded a diploma of honor at the Paris Exposition. In 1888 the business was removed to Chicago.

The Schaefer instruments are distributed at wholesale by the Schaefer Piano Mfg. Co., 2095 State St., Chicago, Ill. With 50 years of continuous improvement, it can be truthfully said that few pianos give better satisfaction to the purchaser for durability and pure tonal quality. A piano of the highest type, thoroughly reliable and so carefully and scientifically constructed that no one need hesitate about buying The Schaefer player pianos are easy to play and so effective they are almost human in their operation.

SCHAFER Established in 1903 by the Schafer Brothers in St. Louis as The Schafer Piano Works. Their pianos, both in the Grand and upright designs, are especially known for their remarkably appealing tonal qualities. The sweet mellowness of tone, and wide range of volume make their instruments a favorite with those musically educated. Their styles are always of the most modern design, and the superior durability of Schafer pianos,. Instruments are well known and readily understood when it is known they employ in all departments only the most skilled of the piano trade craftsmen, and all material must measure up to their critical requirements. One requirement was that every single Schafer piano had to be inspected and signed by William, Jacob, or Walter Schafer before it could leave the factory.

SCHENCKE Piano's of a popular grade made at 432-440 Austin Place, New York, by the Schencke Piano Co.

SCHERPE Manufactured by B. Scherpe & Sons, practical piano makers, at 21O3 Clybourn Ave, Chicago. Instruments of good, durable character. The firm also makes player pianos bearing this name.


These instruments possess remarkable tone qualities. The case designs are chaste and beautiful, and the construction is in the best sense durable and reliable. Schaff Bros. instruments are made in uprights and player pianos and they have a record of perfect satisfaction. The Schaff Bros. grown steadily and its progress has developed the musical qualities of the piano without so far advancing the prices as to dwarf their great popularity. Dealer: who sell these instruments praise their attractive qualities; and the rapid development of the factory productions, under the present management, is the best guaranty of improved methods.

SCHUMANN A house of national reputation. Makers of only artistic pianos and player-pianos. Schumann instruments are made in their factory at Rockford, Illinois, where the industry was removed from Chicago in 1903. All instrument: made by the Schumann Piano Co. and are of one quality, the highest; all bear the one name, Schumann, and are backed by the famous Schumann Unlimited Warranty. The Schumann piano is especially noted for the many exclusive and improved features which it contains; one of particular value from a tonal standpoint being. their system of dowel pin construction of the sounding board, ribs and bridges, doing away with any metal touching these parts, assuring the sounding board of exceptional vibrating power. Workmanship is the mast skilled, and the materials used are the finest. The tone of the Schumann piano justly deserves the reputation which it has won throughout the country, Possessing that rare singing quality so much desired. Schumann cases are of beautiful finish and design. The Schumann piano has been honored by testimonials from many of the greatest artists and musician Schumann instruments are meeting with demand in foreign countries because of their ability, due to the individuality of construction, to withstand trying climatic conditions. The factory at Rockford is very finely equipped, electric power being used and every facility afforded for the production of pianos of the finest quality. Mr. W. N. Van Matre, president of the Schumann Piano Co., is a recognized expert in both the making and marketing of such an instrument Dealers who handle the Schumann very warmly of its attributes. The Schumann player piano, manufactured complete in the Schumann factory, under Schumann patents, is an important factor in the business of this company. The Schumann player action is made complete in the factories of the company at Rockford. Purchasers are especially cautioned against spurious or imitation Schumann piano several of which have appeared in the trade. Genuine Schumann: bear the Schumann head trade mark.

SCHLEICHER & SONS Durable and attractive pianos, player pianos, made by Schleicher & Sons.

SCHILLER The Schiller product has gained an enviable reputation in the piano field. More than 68,000 of this well known makes have been made and sold, all of which has been accomplished without extensive advertising, the sales resulting from the enthusiasm of Schiller owners who recommend them to their friends. Through exclusive features and excellent quality Schiller pianos and players have been in demand by representative dealers from coast to coast. In keeping with the policy of the company to combine meritorious features in their product they are now building a Grand of distinctive quality under the patent of Wm. Bauer, President of Julius Bauer & Co., Chicago, an acoustician of national reputation. The scale and patterns have been drafted and made by Mr. Bauer personally and the work is being carried on under his instruction. The Bauer patent has an established reputation as scientific grand piano construction. The improvement in tone is gained by having the strings about two inches from the sound board as compared to one inch in the regular construction. This construction gives added strength and eliminates to a minimum susceptibility to atmospheric changes. The Schiller line includes uprights, grands, players, reproducing uprights and grands. A complete line of high quality instruments.

M. SCHULZ & CO. Pianos, player-pianos. Grand and Reproducing Pianos known throughout the piano world as instruments of the highest class. The M. Schultz piano of the best known, most highly organized, reputable and extensive piano manufacturing concerns in the country. Technically, the instruments made by this concern and note for scientific correctness of scale, highest grade of workmanship, and extreme care in choice of only the finest in material, backed up by long experience. The tone quality of M. Schulz pianos is the strong point of them, possessing a roundness, purity and mellow singing beauty all its own. This company is also distinguished for turning out case work of true artistic excellence, with a purity of design and fineness of finish which are in every way distinguished. Added refinements in case designs of special period art models are features of M. Schulz Co. production. The company's ambition has always been to make the best pianos regardless of cost. The player-pianos made by this company are genuine Schulz pianos combined with a special player mechanism, devised in the Schulz factories, and made in them under the supervision of the inventor. Thus the Schulz player-piano not only has many original features, but is a combination of parts designed for each other from the first and in perfect harm any throughout. Schulz Aria Divina Reproducing pianos are a standard with dealers everywhere.

SCHMIDT- DAUBER Pianos and player pianos of durable and attractive character are manufactured by the Schmidt Dauber Company.

SCHOMACKER The famous "Gold String" piano, founded in Philadelphia, 1838, is manufactured by the SCHOMACKER Piano Company Philadelphia.

J. P. SEEBURG Coin operated pianos, Orchestrions, Theatre Organs, made by the J. P. Seeburg Piano Co., the pioneer automatic industry of Chicago, have attained leadership in this particular field. They are splendid instruments of highest grade containing a most durable mechanisms and many desirable features.

SETTERGREN Small grand pianos, exclusively, bear this name, which is that of an expert piano manufacturer of thirty-five years experience in some of the foremost industries. The Settergren grand pianos are the result of a determination to create high grade instruments upon the most modern lines, and to this end Mr. B. K. Settergren applied the experience and skill acquired in some of the most famous industries. His success is the best possible proof of the accuracy of his judgement in gauging the advanced musical appreciation of both trade and public. The line of grands produced by the B. K. Settergren Co. has met the most critical requirements to such an extent that the factory has been more than doubled in capacity within the three years since its establishment. The growth indicated is evidence of one of almost phenomenal success in an industry devoted solely to small grand pianos. The Settergren grands are beautiful in design and finish, and they respond to the musical desires of people who know what good music is.

SHATTUCK Pianos bearing this name is the product of the P.S. Wick Co., of North St. Paul, Minn. and Industry that enjoy a fine reputation for skill and reliability. Manufacturers' name appears on the fall board and plate and the Shattuck is a reliable piano in every particular. It is of pleasing tone quality, and is so carefully made as to insure its durability. A safe piano to buy in every respect, and sold at a very moderate price when the character of both materials and workmanship employed in its construction is considered. While only the name of the manufacturers now appears on the fall board, the iron plate carries the name "Shattuck."

B. SHONINGER The House of Shoninger is one of the oldest among the piano manufacturers, having been established by B. Shoninger in 1850. During this long and celebrated career it has always been identified by which standards of manufacture and recognition from many of the world's great artists and authorities. At the Paris International Exposition, at the Rotterdain World's Fair and at the Chicago Exposition, Shoninger pianos obtained highest awards. The qualities that gained recognition for these instruments have not been acquired in one or two generations, but is the result of over years of expert piano building. The founder of this old firm gained note not only as a piano and organ builder, but also for the many inventions that materially helped to improve the pianos and organs lie made. His descendants have always borne in mind his high ideals and carried them out and in that way tamed the prestige that these instruments had already gained. They have a modern and up to date factory in which they produce both the upright and Grand models of all types that have met with the greatest appreciation from both the public and the trade. Today the name "Shoninger" means artistic leadership to a legion of music lovers and Shoninger progress ut the future will be dotted with new and greater triumphs, for never more imposing were the resources behind this time-honored name. Slioninger pianos are sold the world over and they will be found in the most representative piano stores in the United States.

SEYBOLD Pianos and player pianos of attractive and durable qualities bearing this name are manufactured by J P. Johnson Piano Co., of Elgin and Ottawa, Ill.

SHAW This instrument was originally made in Erie, Pa., the business being established more than twenty years ago. In a 1900 the Shaw business was purchased by Chas. Stieff, Inc., of Baltimore, Md.

SHERWOOD Dependable pianos manufactured by the Clarendon Piano Co., Rockford, Ill. Serviceable, well-built pianos possessing musically good tone.


Manufactured by the Schubert Piano Co.,. These instruments, made in uprights, grands and reproducing pianos, are from an old established industry and contain a new tone device known as the "Virzi." At the Paris International Exposition, at the Rotterdain World's Fair and at the Chicago Exposition, Shubert pianos obtained highest awards. The qualities that gained recognition for these instruments have not been acquired in one or two generations, but is the result of over years of expert piano building. The founder of this old firm gained note not only as a piano and organ builder, but also for the many inventions that materially helped to improve the pianos. His descendants have always borne in mind his high ideals and carried them out and in that way tamed the prestige that these instruments had already gained. They have a modern and up to date factory in which they produce both the upright and Grand models of all types that have met with the greatest appreciation from both the public and the trade.

SELECTRA This name is given to a dependable special device for selecting at will any tune desired which appears on a ten-piece re -roll automatic music roll. It is made and controlled by the Western Electric Piano Co., of Chicago.

SINGER Pianos and player-pianos which bear this now widely known name are manufactured by the Singer Division of the Steger & Sons Piano Mfg. Co., of Chicago and Steger, Ill. Singer pianos were first offered the public in 1884. The Singer piano and player piano are very desirable instruments of beautiful touch, great durability and very attractive qualities, fully guaranteed. They are noted for good workmanship and in their manufacture materials of approved quality are used. Singer pianos are recognized by the piano trade and piano buying public as desirable instruments in their class, and all the qualities of the Singer pianos will be found to an equal degree in the Singer player-pianos, which are dependable instruments, not only in material construction but equally in the player mechanism.

SMITH & BARNES Known as "the Pioneer pianos of the West." The first pianos manufactured in Chicago for wholesale trade. This was in 1884. The manufacture of these instruments is conducted tinder a strong organization headed by The Continental Piano Co. The Smith & Barnes player-pianos are of the same high character and have earned for themselves a place among the leading player-pianos of the country. The Smith, Barnes & Strobber Company, manufacturers of the Smith & Barnes pianos, stand among the highest commercially in the piano manufacturing industry. Main office and factory at Chicago. Very large branch factory at No. Milwaukee, Wis. See also Smith, Barnes & Strobber Co

SMITH & NIXON One of the oldest names in the American piano world. These pianos, player-pianos and grands are manufactured by a division of the Goldsmith Piano Co. of Chicago, an industry of utmost responsibility. Smith & Nixon pianos have held a place very high in the esteem of discriminating musical people and, under present conditions, their position will be maintained.

SOHMER & CO. Pianos of this make are distinguished by their artistic character, and have for many years held their place among the best specimens of the piano-maker's art. They are manufactured in both grand and upright styles. Fine pianos in every respect, and the product of a house of highest responsibility.

SOLO-CONCERTO The leading player piano of the H. C. Bay Co. line, to whom refer. One style is manufactured equipped with the reliable H. C. Bay player action, made in its entirety in the H. C. Bay factory at Bluffton, Ind. Beautifully finished, and of fine musical tone, a player for the most exclusive trade. The H. C. Bay player action is proclaimed as one which "will be acclaimed by every tuner, and player regulator looking after the instruments. H. C. Bay player pianos have won a prominent place in the world of music and their production increases rapidly as the desirability of these instruments becomes known.

SOLO CAROLA INNER-PLAYER A name used exclusively by The Cable Company to designate their well-known patented Solo Carola pneumatic player mechanism, which they install in their Conover, Carola and Euphona Inner-Player pianos. The invention was completed nine years ago, but instead of immediately placing these Inner-Player pianos on the market, they were put in testing rooms and their conduct watched under varying conditions and every conceivable test. These instruments are the first and only player-pianos so far invented on which you can strike any of eighty-eight solo or accompaniment notes, either independently or simultaneously, with varying degrees of power. There are eighty-eight slot-like openings extending above the regular orifices on the tracker board. This gives independent solo control to every one of the eighty-eight notes on the keyboard, and it is done without increasing the length of the tracker board. This new Solo Carola mechanism enables the production of a solo note with an intensity many times greater than the accompaniment, and on a very low air pressure. There are no levers to operate; it is all done automatically. These instruments will play any standard eighty-eight note roll. Naturally, player-pianos of this type appeal directly to musical people. The Solo Carola mechanism 15 installed in both the Solo Carola and the Solo Euphona Inner-player, to which refer elsewhere.

SOLO EUPHONA INNER-PLAYER This remarkable instrument is the Euphona Inner-Player equipped with the well-known patented Solo Carola mechanism, the only device ever made whereby solo and accompaniment notes can be struck independently or simultaneously throughout the entire length of the keyboard with any desired degree of power. The result is a player-piano of the highest artistic merit. The Solo Euphona Inner-Player is made in its entirety by The Cable Company, Chicago.

SOLOTONE The name adopted by Schaff Bros. Co. of Huntington. Ind., for their player-pianos. Instruments of such attractive characteristics and musical qualities as to have made them favorites wherever known.

SPECTOR & SON Pianos and player-pianos of good character and durability are manufactured by the Spector & Son Piano Co., whose wareroom and offices were at 324 Grand Street, New York. The factory is at 417-423 West 28th Street and is in charge of an expert piano maker. The output is sold mainly by the New York retail house.

SPENCER Pianos and player-pianos of attractive designs and fine tone are manufactured by the Spencer Piano Co., Inc. Spencer pianos and players have attained a good place in the musical world and the industry is growing rapidly.

SPIES Manufactured by Kohler & Campbell, Inc., Fiftieth St. and Eleventh Ave., New York City, who control the name and assets of the Spies Piano Company. A popular priced piano of a dependable value instrument that sells easily and gives satisfaction.

STANDARD The name of a notable player piano action manufactured by the Standard Pneumatic Action Company, of New York City, the largest industry of its kind in the world. The trademark letter "S" is found on all products from this company, on patent plate in a spool box. The Standard Pneumatic Action embodies many exclusive patented features of great value. This company is an organization of player specialists whose success has been unparalleled. Manufacturers of more than 375,000 player actions in 15 years. Player actions of splendid character, backed by the five-year guarantee of a concern of unquestionable financial and commercial standing.

STARCK P.A. From its first appearance a great many years ago it has been the ambition of the manufacturers of the Starck piano to create an instrument distinctive in its expression of the skill and care by which it is produced. Mr. P. A. Starck had been engaged in the piano business during his entire lifetime and he had a desire to excel any of the instruments with which he had been associated. With this purpose in view he founded the industry that bears his name and he succeeded in presenting to the piano buying public an instrument of the highest type. The Starck up rights affords fine specimens of case design and the tonal effects are the result of expert scale drafting and acoustic development of the only kind that can insure evenness, power, and the gradations which delight the sensitive ear. The Starck grand pianos are artistic in construction and in results. They have shown a distinct advance of late years, and the character of tone and powers attest to the methods employed by the skilled workers in the factory of the P.A. Starck Piano Company in Chicago. The Starck reproducing piano is a triumph in the most advanced department of construction. It has won the indorsement of many artists, and the Starck grand has been used and highly praised by pianists, vocalist's operatic artists whose testimonials form a sheaf of strength to these instruments. The Starck player-pianos include the latest improvements by which are insured the most artistic effects and permit widest range of expression. Starck player-pianos are made in both grand and upright cases. Unique and distinctive features of construction will he found in the Starck piano; the most important of those special features is the sounding board construction which includes the Starck bent acoustic rim. This gives the Starck upright the tone of a grand piano and makes it especially well adapted for concert use.

STARR The Starr Piano Co. was organized in 1872 at Richmond, Ind., by men whose names rapidly became known as among the best of American piano builders. The foundation based upon advanced methods and a careful detail of workmanship soon received its award by the constant growth. This organization today occupies a factory consisting of thirty-one buildings and having a combined floor space of more than five hundred thousand square feet. The buildings are located in the center of a plot of ground thirty-five acres in extent, which is devoted entirely to the interests of the company. This space affords the basis for an extensive and intelligent handling of lumber, the storage of more than four million feet, permitting every preparation requisite to be properly made for piano making.

 In this factory every part of Starr pianos and Starr-made pianos is completely from the basic material, including the player mechanism in its entirety. With these facilities every known labor-saving device has been possible and the elimination of cost greatly enhances values which can be given by this industry. The business of the company is ably directed by its executive officers-Mr. Harry Gennett, president; Mrs. Alice L. Gennett, chairman board of directors; Mr. Clarence Gennett, treasurer; Mr. Fred Gennett, secretary. All have devoted their entire lives to up building of the business. The sales organization ably seconds the executive officers. The distribution of the products of the Starr factory is to all parts of the world. At competitive exhibitions held the Starr pianos have invariably obtained the highest awards, and number among the honor's awards at the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition in 1880, the Chicago World's Fair in 1898, the National International Exposition in 1897, the St. Louis Exposition in 1904, the Seattle Exposition in 1909, the Panama California Exposition in 1915, and many others. Starr-made grand pianos are built in three sizes. The smallest size is but five feet two inches long and bears the company's copyrighted trademark

"Minimum," which indicates the exclusive features of this instrument. The other sizes of parlor and concert grand are well adapted for the field in which that class of instrument is used. Several models of upright pianos and player-pianos are made. In each of them the style and dimensions are varied to meet the particular requirement toward which the design of the instrument has been directed. The fundamental element of proper musical manufacture, the pure, even quality scale, is universally used, and the feeling which the resultant tone quality has obtained warrants the highest commendation. An extended number of models of player-pianos are likewise made. Many of the Starr models bear the exclusive feature of Starr light a luminous music well, making more attractive evening' playing. All instruments made in the Starr factory are fully covered by an absolute guarantee.

STECK Steck pianos have for a great many years sustained a high place in the musical world. They are recognized as among the few old standard makes the fame of which survives. Some of the most distinguished artists have endorsed the Steck piano and in doing so have taken personal interest in testifying to the value of the many improvements and inventions contained in these instruments. The Steck Pianola is a combination of the Steck piano and the Pianola player action.

STEGER & SONS The great industry by which Steger & Sons Grand and upright pianos, player pianos. player grand pianos, reproducing uprights and grand pianos and Steger phonographs are manufactured was established in 1879 and Incorporated in 1892 as the Steger & Sons Piano Mfg. Co. The factories were at Steger, III., where the Dixie highway and Lincoln highway meet, twenty-nine miles from Chicago, on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. The town, which was founded by the late John V. Steger for the purpose of establishing there the great industry, has developed into a place of importance generally speaking, and of vast importance in its relation to piano manufacture. The town occupies a tract of 1,500 acres and the land was purchased by the company for development along the lines which have given to it a conspicuous place. Steger is a community of intelligent, progressive citizens, the larger proportion of whom are workers in the piano factories controlled by Steger & Sons Piano Mfg. Co. Most of the workers own their own homes, which were built by the company and sold to employ on easy payments at cost of erection. The town is supplied with all of the conveniences of a modern city and the school system is a matter of local pride. Owing to the relations which exist between the piano industry and its employees there never arises any of the unrest which sometimes interferes with the progress of industrial communities. Strikes are never known there and the policy long ago adopted has insured not only the prosperity of individuals by the advancement of the Steger & Sons instruments throughout the entire country. Steger & Sons pianos, possessing beautiful tone and artistic excellence, have attained to a place of distinction in the musical world. From the first it has been the policy to insist upon the most careful workmanship and first cost has not been considered in any of the parts or processes which go to the creation of these instruments. They are represented and sold by a very large proportion of the prominent and progressive piano merchants of the United States. They are found in many of the leading musical colleges and conservatories, and are bought by discriminating lovers of music. A feature of the Steger & Sons' pianos is the artistic case designs, and to this end a special art department is maintained in which are employed noted experts in the creation of original effects. Steger instruments are backed by the liberal Steger guarantee. The financial strength of the company is unquestioned. One of Chicago's imposing skyscrapers is the Steger Bldg., at the northwest corner of Wabash Ave. and Jackson Blvd. It is in the center of Chicago's piano row and it forms one of the impressive monuments to the attainments of the Steger & Sons' industries. The Steger Bldg. is nineteen stories high and was erected at a cost of about $l,000,000, The names of pianos are arranged alphabetically in this book to ascertain the character and reliability of any instrument.

STEINERT The development of the Steinert piano has covered a period of many years under the personal direction of Alexander Steinert, present head of the house. His expert knowledge of practical piano building and the application of scientific principles of construction has been employed in bringing the Steinert piano to its present state of excellence.

STEINWAY & SONS Almost from the first arrival in New York of the Steinway family, in 1850, the name has been famous in the history of the American piano. The single aim of the founder was to produce an ideal instrument, and with what grand and satisfactory results, the career of the house which he founded attests. The Steinway piano is too well known and too distinctly and indisputably artistic in its sphere and standing to require any great endorsement here. Its development is a fascinating story and lends honor and credit to its makers as well as to the art of piano-making. "Steinway" pianos are made in all styles and for all climes and all lands; uprights, grands and concert grands. A specialty is also made of art pianos, specially designed, hand decorated and finished in a most sumptuous manner. The first Steinway piano was made by Henry Engelhard Steinway, with his own hands, at Season. Its construction occupied the leisure of a whole year. When Theodore Steinway, for whom this famous piano was built, was fourteen years old, the business of manufacture was so well perfected that the Steinway piano took the premium at the Brunswick Fair. In 1850 the family located in New York leaving a thriving trade behind them in charge of Theodore Steinway, and bringing sufficient capital to start a new factory. Three years were occupied in learning American methods of work and then the factory was opened in Varick St., New York, by the father and his sons, Charles, Henry and William. A year later, March 1854, the American piano took its first premium at the Metropolitan air held in Washington, D. C. The Steinway overstrung pianos were next exhibited at the American Institute, held in the New York Crystal Palace, in 1855, and took all prizes. The London Exposition followed in 1862, and the Paris Exposition in 1867, at which the Steinway pianos received the first prize medal and the grand gold medal, respectively. The piano received at least thirty-five premiums at the principal fairs in the United States between the years 1855 and 1862, since which time the house has been an exhibitor at international expositions only. The "Steinway" has been used by the most eminent artists of both hemispheres and is as well known in art circles of the Old World as it is in the New.

STEINWAY PIANOLA An artistic instrument consisting of the Steinway piano equipped with a Duo-Art Reproducing action. It was marketed solely by The Aeolian Co., New York.

STERLING Sterling pianos and player-pianos have long been favorites among the characteristically American instruments. They are of fine tone quality and their standing in the world of music is all the commendation that could be he desired by the most critical piano lover. In fact, "Sterling" is a name high in the annals of the American piano. It is the name of the founder of the industry, which was incorporated in 1866. The Sterling Instruments stand as representative of the high attainments of American craftsmanship and in every particular they are recognized as leaders among people of discriminating tastes. Of late years a marked improvement has been made in the Sterling musical scale and under the present management the Sterling Piano Corporation is a powerful influence with trade and public

ST. REGIS This is a popular priced, durable piano one of the products of the great house of Baldwin.

CHAS. M. STIEFF Pianos and player-pianos of excellent reputation, manufactured by Chas. M. Stieff, Inc., Baltimore, Md. The Chas. M. Stieff piano is among the old and conservatively made instruments. These pianos are durable, well made and sustain the character of their makers as a responsible business house.

STEHLE William Stehle, 1006 W. Lexington St., Baltimore, Md., makes a meritorious instrument and one to be commended for tone quality and durability. The name of an expert piano maker who, after long association with a famous old Chicago industry, has been manufacturing fine pianos and player-pianos which bear his name A small industry of high ambitions. Established in 1924.

STODART Manufactured by the Stodart Piano Co, at Southern Blvd. and Trinity Ave, New York Trademark registered in 1892. The first Stodart piano was built in 1832. This company is controlled by Jacob Doll & Sons, Incorporated, The "Stodart" is an instrument of established reputation and merit and has a wide reputation throughout the trade. Jacob Doll & Sons

STORY & CLARK Grands, uprights and player-pianos bearing this name are products of the old and responsible firm of the Story & Clark Piano Co., of Chicago, Ill., and Grand Haven, Mich., the extensive factory being in the latter city. The pianos and player-pianos of this house are of the high-grade class in every particular and they are in great demand because of their excellence and the enterprise of their manufacturers. Story & Clark instruments are nationally advertised and have been used by many great artists. Few piano industries can claim to have a larger distribution among music lovers of the highest discrimination. The house of Story & Clark is one of the oldest in the history of piano manufacturing in the west, and it has from the first stood unchallenged for integrity and ambition. Story & Clark pianos are made in uprights, grands, player-pianos and reproducing pianos. In addition, this great firm are the sole manufacturers of the Repro-Phraso player-piano. This new and beautiful instruments a personal expression player enabling anyone to take any common 88-note music roll and trace the melody throughout the selection, perfectly phrasing, shading and obtaining sustenuto effects exactly as if you were playing with your hands on the keys. Special rolls are not required to obtain the fine musical effects.

STRAUBE Manufactured by the Straube Piano Company in its modern, complete factory at Hammond, Ind., 19 miles from Chicago. The Artronome Player Action which is installed only in Straube made pianos, was invented, developed and is now manufactured exclusively by the Straube Company in its own factory. The feature of this player action, which has attracted extraordinary attention, is its dependability the fact that it has reduced service calls to an absolute minimum. This dependability is the result of the many distinctive and exclusive features, both in design and construction, of the player action. Chief of these is the patented Pendulum Valve, by which troubles due to friction and corrosion in the valve mechanism are avoided. Straube Grands and Reproducing Grands are also made complete in the Straube factories. The Straube pianos are in the highest class of musical instruments, being made the finest materials with painstaking care by expert workmen. The beautiful tone quality of the Straube its evenness and purity-is due to the Straube scale which is musically and scientifically correct-the results of years of experiment and study. Straube is marketed by scores of dealers throughout the country, and its distribution is increasing with every year. It has proved a highly satisfactory product for the dealer because of the selling policy of the Straube Piano Company on the "satisfied customer" basis. Straube products are nationally advertised and are known all over the world. Because of their staunch dependability, Straube players are very favorably received in foreign countries. House in unquestioned standing.

STRATFORD Excellent pianos made under the direction of the Foster-Armstrong Co. division in their great factories at Fast Rochester, N. Y. The models of this instrument are appealing and are designed in conformance with the most desirable furniture of today. Various kinds of veneers are used and happily matched in a pattern and blended with a fine sense of color taste so as to be particularly pleasing to the eye. The scales of the Stratford piano are drafted with great smoothness, so that there is an entire avoidance of breaks, thus producing from the lowest bass to the highest treble note a perfectly uniform tone. The Stratford players are equipped with thoroughly reliable player actions

STRICH & ZEIDLER Strich & Zeidler pianos and player-pianos make their appeal to the limited circle of music lovers who are not influenced by great names and are willing to pay good prices for fine instruments. They are represented by many of the foremost piano houses throughout the country. Mr. William Strich, who founded the Strich & Zeidler piano many years ago, is an expert piano maker of distinction and his name is an ample guaranty of the quality of Strich & Zeidler instruments. The pianos are made in both uprights and grands.

STROHBER The Strohber piano from the beginning has been an instrument of marked individuality and durable quality. It is one of the "Pianos of Character" manufactured by the Smith, Barnes & Strohber Division of the Continental Piano Co. at Milwaukee factory. The "Strohber Diminutive" was introduced in 1921 and met with instantaneous success, due to its wonderful quality. It is a practical piano of modest proportion and design, with a tone remarkable for volume and quality. It is eminently adapted for the small apartment or bungalow, as well as the schoolroom. The diminutive player marks a distinct advance in player construction.

STROUD One of the several pianos manufactured by the Aeolian Company, of New York. Stroud pianos are in every way reliable and they are instruments of unquestioned merit. The tone is fascinating and the construction durable and dependable.

STUDIO Designation applied to a style of the famous Autopiano

STUDIO GRAND A famous small grand piano only 5 feet long are known by this name. It is the instrument made by the Christman Piano Co., New York, which has won fame by reason of the distinctive character, flawless tone quality and beauty of design and construction.

STULTZ & BAUER Pianos, player-pianos and reproducing pianos of distinction by one of New York's responsible and most reputable industries. They are handsome instruments, of fine tone quality, and belong among the high-grade pianos in every particular. The Stultz & Bauer pianos, player-pianos and reproducing pianos are fine instruments which enjoy deserved distinction. These admirable instruments are made in grands, uprights and player-pianos and the name of Stultz & Bauer is in itself a guarantee of merit and security. The industry of Stultz & Baner is owned and controlled solely by members of the Bauer family, under whose personal supervision every instrument is built.

STULTZ & CO. Good pianos manufactured by Stultz & Co., which industry is controlled by the Bjur Bros. Co., with factory at 705 Whitlock Ave., New York. Also make player-pianos bearing same name and of popular character.

STURZ BROS Sturz Bros. pianos and piano-players are distinctly high-grade instruments. In tone, finish and construction they have the right to an enviable position.

STUYVESANT One of the reliable popular pianos made by the great industry of the Aeolian Weber Piano & Pianola Co.

SWEETLAND The name of a very reliable and favorably known piano manufactured by the Cable-Nelson Piano Co., of Chicago; factory South Haven, Mich. The Sweeland piano is an attractive instrument of superior musical quality. See Cable-Nelson Piano Co.

SYMPHOTONE Player-pianos of fine qualities made by Autopiano Co., New York.

THOMPSON Pianos and player-pianos of durable character and beautiful tone designed to meet the popular demand, sustaining an excellent reputation, dating back to 1870. Thompson instruments are carefully made, of approved materials. They possess musical merit which is quickly recognized by the prospective purchasers. They are the product of the Thompson Division of the Steger & Sons Piano Mfg. Co., of Chicago, and Steger, Ill. The financial standing of that company is unquestioned. Thompson pianos and player-pianos are so attractive in appearance and they are produced in such a variety of designs that they occupy a conspicuous place in the trade. Every detail in their manufacture receives care ful attention of expert workmen. They are sold under a guarantee which leaves no doubt as to their responsibility. These instruments are handled by foremost piano dealers throughout the country and are in great demand. The factories are at Steger, Illinois, where the Lincoln and Dixie highways meet, and the offices in the Steger Bldg., at the northwest corner of Wabash Ave. and Jackson Blvd. Chicago.

THAYER Popular pianos bearing this name are from the factory of Bjur Bros. Co., New York City, which guarantees their reliability.

TONK Pianos and player-pianos of fine qualities and high repute. The Tonk piano is everywhere noted for peculiarly sweet and sonorous tone and excellence of workmanship and material. As the product of one of the old-established New York industries whose entire career has been one of strict integrity and honor, it is natural to expect something distinctly good in the Tonk piano. And in this anticipation there is no disappointment, for this piano is of a kind to do credit to any name. In short, the Tonk piano is a sweet-toned, satisfying instrument, is durable and is musical. It is rapidly gaining in sale and also already enjoys a large export trade. The Tonk player-piano and Triplex Electric Player and Reproducing Grands and Uprights are no less satisfactory and their success is firmly established. One of the distinct and thoroughly demonstrated improvements in Tonk pianos and player-pianos is the combination rolled steel back construction. It is a feature that has been tried out and proved of great merit. Manufactured by William Tonk & Bros.

TRAYSER PIANO CO. The word "Trayser" became connected with the American piano industry in 1849. The instruments of that time, although necessarily few in number, displayed great skill and a thorough knowledge of the industry which Mr. George L Trayser had learned in the factories of his native Germany He was actively associated with organization bearing his name. During his business lifetime, after which it was absorbed by The Starr Piano Co, who are the manufacturers of these instruments today. With a foundation so well established, this organization has continued the development of the Trayser piano which has long been accepted among the higher grade instruments. The Trayser is guaranteed by The Starr Piano Co.

TROWBRIDGE An old-time piano name on instruments now produced by the Trowbridge Department of the Henry F. Miller plant of the Continental Piano Co., of Boston, Mass. The instruments are thoroughly well made, of fine tone quality and in every way reliable. The factory is at Wakefield, a suburb of Boston, and the offices at 395 Boylston St., Boston.

VICTOR Manufactured by the Bush & Lane Piano Company, in their extensive and finely equipped factory at Holland, Mich. Victor pianos are thoroughly reliable instruments of a high grade. The Victor instruments have been on the market for many years, during which time many thousands have been sold. Victor pianos are noted for their pleasing tone qualities and the unique and effective character of their case work. Dealers who handle these pianos speak most highly of the musical and the durable qualities of the instruments and expert musicians have indorsed in highest terms their admirable qualities. The name "Victor" is copyrighted and is the trademark and exclusive property of this company. The Victor Cecilian contains the famous Cecilian player action, which is so noted for its easy operation, versatility of expression effects and durability. Victor grands and uprights embody the highest musical ideals. See Bush & Lane Piano Co.

VIRTUOLO This famous player-piano was the product of the Hallet & Davis Piano Company of Boston. It is nationally advertised, nationally priced. In November 1925, the control of the old Boston industry was acquired by the Premier Grand Piano Corporation of New York City, which now makes the grand pianos of the former firm. While the uprights are produced in the extensive factories of Jacob Doll & Sons. Instruments of unchallenged quality.

VOSE & SONS One of America's most distinguished pianos. The "Vose" piano has sustained itself in the respect of musicians and the admiration of the public through Mr. James W Vose, recognized as one of the greatest presidents of the many great piano manufacturing concerns of the country. From the first the career of the Vose piano has been steadily gaining until it has reached a position ranking among the foremost pianos of the world. The "Vose" pianos of today are marked by a distinct originality of case designs, careful and most thorough construction, and musical effects of the most satisfactory character. They are pianos whose characters are of a kind to attract the attention of people of refinement and good taste.

WARFIELD Warfield pianos and player-pianos are manufactured by the Waltham Piano Company of Milwaukee. Wisc. The above company recognizes the need of a piano of high quality of attractive case design and finish and of pleasing tonal qualities which will fill the wants of piano purchasers who want to get the best possible value for their purchasing power and have found that the demand for the Warfield has exceeded their highest expectations. The perfection of equipment and scientific management of their large roomy factory has enabled them to produce this instrument in sufficient numbers without in any way interfering with the production of the requisite quantity of Warfield pianos.

WALTERS Durable pianos, made by the Walters Piano Co., New York. The factory is at Long Island City. The entire business and interests of the Walters Piano Co. is controlled by Bloomingdale Brothers, one of New York's big department stores.

HORRACE WATERS & CO A name familiar in retail trade for many years.

WALTHAM Manufactured by the Waltham Piano Co., Milwaukee, Wis. , Waltham pianos and player-pianos are constructed under the supervision of experts in every department of the great factory. All material has been carefully selected to insure the very best in every part used in its construction. The case work is especially worthy of mention. The case designs are artistic and of exceptionally solid and substantial construction. Waltham uprights and player-pianos are of one tone quality and as handsome as durable. The Waltham reproducing player is also worthy of special attention on account of its lifelike reproduction of the artist skill. Another player which this company is featuring is equipped with an electric motor operated by turning a switch and can at the will of the player also be operated by the foot pedals. All of the piano and player actions in Waltham instruments are of the best and are skillfully manufactured and regulated. The player action department is equipped for perfect workmanship and intelligent inspection previous to shipping the finished instruments. All Waltham pianos and player-pianos are very carefully inspected in the several departments through which they pass while iii the process of construction.

WALDEMAR Made by the Kreiter Manufacturing Co. Inc., of Milwaukee and Marinette, Wis. , The Waldemar piano and player piano are named after the son of the president of the Kreiter Manufacturing Co. They are fully warranted by that responsible corporation. These instruments are handled by some of the largest and leading piano merchants of the United States, and have proved very popular and reliable in every particular.

WALDORF The Waldorf Piano Company, incorporated under the laws of the State of New York, 1908, owned and controlled by the Autopiano Company, manufactures one style player-piano and an expression player-piano, sponsored and vouched for by the Autopiano Company, thus assuring first-class material and workmanship. The Waldorf player wholesales at a very reasonable price. The financial standing of the Waldorf Piano Co. is unquestioned.

WASHBURN Well-known pianos and player-pianos of the popular grade. One of the Lyon & Healy made instruments which have attained to great popularity because of substantial material and musical merit. The house behind the Washburn is of the highest credit.

WAVERLY The distinctive name given to a very beautiful Duo Tone Model produced by the Waltham Piano Co. of Milwaukee. This instrument was in every way reliable and desirable.


Weaver pianos in uprights grands and player-pianos and reproducing pianos have the characteristics that mark the highest achievements in modern piano making Weaver pianos, insuring the greatest possible durability, and wrought out so as to assure the highest development of the carefully drawn scales. The tone regulating and action regulating art so thoroughly did as to give the piano an elastic and easy touch, and to make it capable of the finest shades of expression. In fact, the Weaver piano responds in every way to the most exacting demands of the accomplished pianist. The Weaver upright piano in large sizes has larger sounding board and longer strings than the small grand pianos of various makes, and is an upright grand piano with more volume and more of a concert grand tone than the small horizontal grands.

WEBSTER This piano has been prominent for many years. It was established more than a quarter-century ago. A reliable popular instrument. The Webster player-pianos are of the same durable character and have a large demand. The Webster pianos and players are controlled by W. P Haines & Co., of New York, with factories at Leominster, Mass

WEBER & SONS Small industry at corner Wellington and Herndon St., Chicago, where practical men make a few pianos bearing this name.

WEBER A piano of international renown, manufactured by the Weber Piano Co., of New York. The house of Weber was established in 1852. The pianos of this make have been held in high esteem by artists and the musical public. In 1904 the Weber Piano Co. received from His Majesty, Alfonso XIII, a royal warrant of appointment as piano manufacturers to the court of Spain. His Holiness, Pope Pius X, also honored this distinguished concern by appointing it his personal purveyor and also for the apostolic palaces.

The Weber, when introduced in 1852, won immediate response due to its tone quality, power and sympathy. It was awarded distinguished honors at the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876; at the American Exhibition in London, in 1887, and at the Paris Exposition in 1889. Albert Weber, who supervised the manufacture, was a powerful figure in the music world of his day furthering the development of musical knowledge. The Weber Piano Company continued to produce fine pianos after his death and Aeolian carried on the tradition when they acquired the company.

The Weber piano, one of the oldest names in American-made pianos, made it a fourth top-of-the-line piano produced in the East Rochester plant, sharing that position with Knabe, Chickering and Mason & Hamlin.

WEGNER Manufactured by the Kreiter Manufacturing Co. in the large and perfectly equipped factory of that industry at Marinette, Wis.



WELLINGTON The Wellington pianos belong to the extensive line of instruments manufactured by The Cable Company Chicago They possess an attractiveness of and finish, elasticity of action and durability, not surpassed by many pianos of much higher price In tone quality, in durability and in appearance the Wellington pianos reveal evidences of masterly piano building skill and, price considered, are hard to equal. These instruments have been found so satisfactory that they are in great demand throughout the country and have also won an export trade of large proportions. While not an expensive piano the Wellington presents all the elegance of finish and melody of tone character that charm the lover of good pianos. It is a reliable piano in which the buyer receives a large return for a comparatively small investment. Its manufacturers possess peculiarly great facilities for the economical production of good pianos and they have succeeded in creating instruments of rare attractiveness at prices within the reach of the people. The Wellington is a safe piano and a splendid value. The Cable Company

WELLSMORE & CO. Pianos and player pianos of popular character and medium prices are made by the Wellsmore Piano Co., Inc, These instruments are fully guaranteed by their makers and are reliable in every way. They have long since demonstrated that they possess the qualities that satisfy.

WERNER PIANO COMPANY Manufactured b' the Werner Piano Co in a well-equipped factory in Chicago The Werner player-piano has secured an excellent reputation on account of its simple and effective method of operation and control.

WESER BROS Weser pianos and player-pianos arc made by the old established, highly responsible firm of Weser Bros., New York City, established in 1879. The product of this factory is shipped to all parts of the world and the organization is reputed to make one of the highest grade commercial pianos. Its factory covers more than three acres of working floor space. Weser pianos are noted for their excellent ease operation mechanical quality and attractive cases.

WENTWORTH The Wentworth Piano Co., of Boston, manufactures pianos and player pianos.

WESTERN ELECTRIC Automatic pianos of reliable construction are manufactured by the Western Electric Piano Co.

WEYDIG Makers of the well known "Radi-O-Players' of attractive and quality features the characteristics of the instruments manufactured by The Weydig Corp.

WHEELOCK Popular instruments manufactured by the Wheelock Piano Co., of New York, which are controlled by the Aeolian-Weber Corporation.

WHITMAN Popular pianos and player-pianos made by the Weydig Piano Corporation.

WHITNEY See the Kimball Piano Company.

WIDDIFIELD This is the name of one of the popular pianos made by the Warren Piano Co. of Warren, Pa. The founder of this industry, Mr. Thomas. Cook, long ago gained a fine place in the trade by his upright methods and unchallenged integrity.

WILLARD A thoroughly good piano of medium price, made by Smith, Barnes & Strohber Co., in their large factory at Chicago, Ill. The Willard piano has been on the market for more than twenty years. It has proved itself to be of dependable construction, good and lasting tone and reliable in every way.

WILBUR Popular pianos and player-pianos manufactured by the Pease Piano Co. of New York, which insures their reliability as instruments of good tone and value of the medium grade.

P.S. WICK Upright pianos, player-pianos, grands and reproducing pianos of distinctly high-grade quality and attractiveness are manufactured by the P S Wick Co., of North St. Paul, Minn. The best of materials are used in these instruments and the construction is beyond reproach. The result is a tone that is at once powerful, sensitive and, pleasing to critical ears. The case designs are refined and beautiful and the finish is in keeping. The P.S. Wick a piano of the progressive kind, and its makers are ambitious to win and sustain the reputation for producing none but instruments of the high class by which reputations are made. The president and treasurer of the company making these pianos is Mr. P. S. Wick, a gentleman of large experience in this line of industry. These famous instruments are now produced also in small grands and full-sized grands and they are in every way representative of their ambition fully realized.

WILFRED Instruments of beautiful tone quality and fine craftsmanship manufactured by the Wilfred Piano Co., 156th St. and Whitlock Ave., New York. The company consists experts in the various departments of fine piano manufacture. The industry was established in 1913 and has grown steadily. The player-piano actions are manufactured in the company's factory as are also the piano cases. Wilfred pianos and player-pianos are the products of skilled artisans, and the members of the company take personal pride in the creations of their energies.

WILSON Wilson pianos and players are manufactured in the large and well-equipped factory of the Waltham Piano Company, at Milwaukee, Wis. The Wilson Piano fills the need for a well-constructed piano which can be marketed at a reasonable price and which is at the same time a reliable and durable instrument, which will stand the test of time and wear and has durability, excellent tonal qualities, artistic case designs, durable finish and has enjoyed an excellent demand which is constantly increasing.

WINTER Winter & Co. pianos and player-pianos are produced in an approved manner, and of the best materials and all genuine Winter pianos bear the name on the fall boards and it is cast in the iron plates. Pianos bearing this name are recommended as absolutely safe to buy.

WING & SON The Wing & Sons' pianos and player-pianos are manufactured by that firm in New York City, and are sold only direct to their own customers. The firm of Wing & Son is one of the oldest in the trade, having been established in 1868 as Doan, Wing & Cushing which was succeeded by Wing & Son in 1873, and now by a third successive generation of Wing piano makers.

WINKLER PIANO CO. Pianos and player-pianos of good character are made in steadily increasing numbers by Winkler Piano Co. Trenton, N. J. The product of experienced manufacturers, whose ambition is to excel, these instruments deserve the confidence of the musical public. They are favorites with a large number of the prominent pianists in Trenton, their home city.

WILLIAMS Pianos and player-pianos manufactured by the Williams Piano & Organ Co., in their well-equipped factory at 127 Fullerton Ave., Chicago, enjoy a wide reputation for sweetness of tone and all-around reliability. The fine new Williams six-story fireproof factory is modern in every appointment and has every needed improvement for the manufacture of high-class pianos and every convenience for the welfare and comfort of their workmen. The Williams Piano & Organ Co. is the outgrowth of the old firm of J. W. Williams, established by J. W. Williams & Sons, 1884 recognized by artistic piano makers as a mail of unusual musical taste and judgment, has given much time, attention and scientific experimentation to that department of piano construction which specially pertaining is to tone. Mr. Williams successful endeavor has been to produce a piano that spontaneously responds to the varying moods of the musician and for the time likens a part of himself. This characteristic or quality can only lie found in pianos from an artistic instead of a commercial point of view. The Williams pianos are made by a firm of unquestioned integrity and of the highest commercial and personal responsibility, and is a safe piano to buy.

WISSNER Mr. Otto Wissner a thoroughly skilled piano-maker whose ambition to excel has never relaxed. The tone quality of the Wissner pianos and player-pianos is of refined and satisfying character. The Wissner piano is used in a number of prominent music schools and colleges and always with most satisfactory results.

WURLITZER 1853 the 22-year-old Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer arrived penniless in Hoboken, New Jersey. He had left his home in Saxony part of Germany, intending to take advantage of the opportunities that he had heard America offered. On arrival he took clerical jobs, including working for a bank. Next to the bank were a music shop, and Wurlitzer noticed that European musical instruments on display were being sold for disproportionately high prices. He discovered that this was because the imported goods had to pass through so many intermediaries. He saved $5700 which he sent to his father with the instructions that he should purchase certain musical instruments and ship these to him in New York. This he did, and Franz was able to sell them at a fraction of the cost that they previously commanded in America. This marked the inception of the Wurlitzer Co in 1856.

The company continued to wholesale instruments until Wurlitzer had enough money to set up a manufacturing plant in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1861. Four years later he opened a retail shop and expanded the distribution business across the US. In 1880 Wurlitzer started to make pianos, and the company grew and became particularly well known for military and mechanical instruments. Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer died in 1914, but the company continued and managed to survive the age of the gramophone by introducing the first automatic jukebox, the Wurlitzer Simplex. Wurlitzer was also known for its pipe and theater organs.

WOODBURY Well-made pianos and player-pianos, manufactured by the Jewett Piano Co., of Leominster, Mass. These instruments have been in the market for many years and have sustained the reputation of a responsible industry.

W. WUERTZ Well-made pianos and player-pianos made by the W. Wuertz Co., Inc., 1907 Park Ave., New York.

YORK Pianos and player-pianos made by the reliable Weaver Piano Co., of York, Pa. The York is a strictly high grade instrument of the utmost reliability. It possesses fine musical qualities and its case designs are of exceptional beauty. The York player-piano is an exceptional instrument, with heavy strings and back. It is fully warranted by this reliable company. It has superior tone quality, is strong and durable and responds equally well to the forceful, popular operator and the most cultured player of refined tastes. The cases are artistic in design and beautifully finished.

KARL ZECK This name has been established by the Karl Zeck Company, and the instruments are made by the Clarenden Piano Co., a division of the Haddorif Piano Co.